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Full text of "The antiqvities of Athens"

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RETURN TO LIBRARY 
ENGRAVING DI} ON 



THE ANTIQVITIES OF 

ATHENS- 



MEASVRED . AND • DELINEATED 

BY • JAMES • STVART . F-R-S- AND . FS-A 

AND • NICHOLAS . REVETT- 

PAINTERS • AND • ARCHITECTS- 



VOLVME . THE . FIRST. 




^(uiMvfi«/<«V £*Jf* 



LONDON 

PRINTED • BY ' JOHN * HABERKORN " MDCCLXTI. 









I 









e?j( 

R6 




1- B»/i'iY. /*~lp. 



TO THE KING 



MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY 



TO permit us moft humbly to lay at YOUR MAJESTY'S feet, an 
attempt which we have made to illuftrate the hiftory of Architecture by 
delineations from the antiquities of Athens, the moft renowned and magnificent 
City of Greece, and once the moft diftinguiflied feat of Genius and Liberty; 
particularly celebrated for thofe Arts, which amidft the cares of Government, and 
the glories of Conqueft, YOUR MAJESTY deigns to patronize. 



lh 




the fame of Athens, and of thofe remains of her ancient fplendor, which wc 
have defcribed, would not fufficiently embolden us, thus to approach YOUR 
MAJESTY, did we not behold, in the profpea which our own Country 
affords, the Arts of Elegance, and thofe of Empire equally flourilhing, under 
the Influence of a SO VE REIGN in whofe Mind they are united. 

That YOUR MAJESTY may long enjoy the delight of diffufing every 
Bleffing, and promoting every ingenuous Art amongft a free, an affeaionate, 
and a happy People, is the fervent Prayer of 



YOUR MAJESTY'S 



moft dutiful Servants 



and moft faithful Subject- 



James Stuart 



Nicholas Revett. 







PREFACE. 



TH E ruined Edifices of Rome have for many years engaged the attention of thofe 
who apply themfelves to the ftudy of Architecture; and have generally been confidered, 
as the Models and Standard of regular and ornamental Building. Many reprefen- 
tations of them drawn and engraved by fkilful Artifts have been publifhed, by which 
means the Study of the Art has been every where greatly facilitated, and the general practice of it 
improved and promoted. Infomuch that what is now cfteemed the mod elegant manner of decorating 
Buildings, was originally formed, and has been fince eflablifhed on Examples, which the Antiquities of 
Rome have furnifhed. 



But altho' the World is enriched with Collections of this fort already publifhed, we thought it would 
be a Work not unacceptable to the lovers of Architefture, if we added to thofe Collections, fomc 
Examples drawn from the Antiquities of Greece; and we were confirmed in our opinion by this con- 
fideration principally, that as Greece was the great Miftrefs of the Arts, and Rome, in this refpect, no 
more than her difciple, it may be prefumed, all the moft admired Buildings which adorned that 
imperial City, were but imitations of Grecian Originals. 

Hence it feemed probable that if accurate Reprefentations of thefe Originals were publifhed, the World 
would be enabled to form, not only more extenfive, but jufter Ideas than have hitherto been obtained, 
concerning Architecture, and the ftate in which it exifted during the befl ages of antiquity. It even 
feemed that a performance of this kind might contribute to the improvement of the Art itfelf, which 
at prefent appears to be founded on too partial and too fcanty a fyftem of ancient Examples. 

For during thofe Ages of violence and barbarifm, which began with the declenfion, and continued 
long after the deftruction of the Roman Empire, the beautiful edifices which had been erected in 
Italy with fuch great labour and expence, were neglected or deftroyed; fo that, to ufe a very common 
cxpreffion, it may truly be faid, that Architecture lay for Ages buried in its own ruins; and altho' from 
thefe Ruins, it has Phenix-like received a fecond birth, we may neverthelefs conclude, that many of 
the beauties and elegancies which enhanced its ancient Splendor, are ftill wanting, and that it has not 
yet by any means recovered all its former Perfection. 

This Conclufion becomes fufficiently obvious, when we confider that the great Artifts, by whofc 
induftry this noble Art has been revived, were obliged to fhape its prefent Form, after thofe Ideas 
only, which the cafual remains of Italy fuggefted to them; and thefe Remains are fo far from furnifh- 

a ing 



11 



PREFACE. 



ing all the materials neceflary for a complete Reftoration of Architecture in all its parts, that the heft 
collections of them, thofe publifhed by Palladio and Defgodetz, cannot be faid to afford a fufHcient 
variety of Examples for reftoring even the three Orders of Columns ; for they are deficient in what 
relates to the Doric and Ionic, the two moft ancient of thefe Orders (a). 

If from what has been faid it fhould appear, that Architecture is reduced and reflrained within 
narrower limits than could be wifhed, for want of a greater number of ancient Examples than have 
hitherto been publifhed; it mufl then be granted, that every fuch Example of beautiful Form or Pro- 
portion, wherever it may be found, is a valuable addition to the former Stock; and does, when pub- 
lifhed, become a material acquifition to the Art. 

But of all the Countries, which were embellifhed by the Ancients with magnificent Buildings, Greece 
appears principally to merit our Attention; fince, if we believe the Ancients themfelves, the moft beau- 
tiful Orders and Difpofitions of Columns were invented in that Country, and the moft celebrated 
Works of Architecture were erected there: to which may be added that the moft excellent Treatifes 
on the Art appear to have been written by Grecian Architects (£). 

The City of Greece moft renowned for flately Edifices, for the Genius of its Inhabitants (V), and for 
the culture of every Art, was Athens (d). We therefore refolved to examine that Spot rather than 
any other; flattering ourfelves, that the remains we might find there, would excel in true Tafte and 
Elegance every thing hitherto publifhed. How far indeed thefe Expe£tations have been anfwered, 
muft now be fubmitted to the opinion of the Public. 

Yet fince the Authorities and Reafons, which engaged us to conceive fo highly of the Athenian Build- 
ings, may ferve likewife to guard them, in fome meafure, from the over-hafty opinions and un- 



(a) In the Collection of Antiquities publiflied by Palladio, there is no 
example of a Doric Building ; and the Temple of Manly Fortune is the only 
ancient example of the Ionic Order he has given us. This Temple is built 
of a coarfe Stone, is ill wrought, and has been covered over with Stucco, 
in which material, the Capitals of the Columns, with all the Mouldings 
and Ornaments of the Entablature have been finifhed; hence they are not 
only incorrect, but they are likewife fo decayed, that the original form and 
projedVions of thefe Mouldings, cannot now be duly afcertained, nor can 
the diameter of the Column, that neceflary meafure by which the modu- 
lary proportions o/ Buildings are adjufted, be exactly determined. Def- 
godetz who has accurately enough defcribed this Temple has mentioned 
moft of thefe defects. He obferves that, " Tout cet Edifice eft bati de 
" pierrcs durcs recouvert de Jiuc par tout, a la refer ve des hazes des Colon- 
** nes, & du foubaffement, Page 98; and again Page 100, he fays, Le 
" Contour de la Volute que fay defjinc riejl pas ainji dans toutes, car elles 
"font differ cntcs etant faitcs de flue, Us unes plus rottdes, les autres un peu 
** pendantes, &c. Lorfque j'ai mefure ce Temple, il reftoit encore unc 
** partie de la Corniche & de la Frize affez confiderable ou le flue etoit 
" encore entier, celui de 1' Architrave etoit beaucoup plus ruine qui laiffoit 
"voir les picrres de.dcjjous, qui formoit un profil fort different de celui de 
"Jiuc." The Bafemcnt of this building has never been covered with 
Stucco, its Mouldings therefore remain in their original form, thefe Def- 
godetz has cenfured in the following words. M Dans le Corniche il y a a 
*' remarquer un grand amas confus de pet its membrcs fous le larmier , qui eft 
" plus petit que le talon, 1st le talon ejl plus petit que le lifleau" Page 103. 
Monf. de Chambray has nevertheless fuppofed, and we imagine very 
juftly, that this imperfect Building is the beft example of the Ionic Older 
new extant in Rome. 

The only example of the Doric Order, to be found in the Collection of 
Antiquities which Defgodetz has publiflied, is copied from the Theatre of 
Marcellus: but this, altho' of the Auguftan Age, cannot be accounted a 
fufficient Model for the reftoration of an Order. Inftead of entire infula- 
ttd Columns, it prefents us only with half Columns placed againft the 
piers of an Arcade ; and the greateft part of the Cornice is entirely ruined, 
fo that not the leaft trace of its original form remains. 

Let us now examine the three examples which Defgodetz has produced 
of the Ionic Order; they are, the Temple of Manly Fortune, the Theatre 



of Marcellus, and the Amphitheatre of Vefpafian. On the firft of thefe 
we have already animadverted, in the former part of this Note. Againft 
the Ionic Order of the Theatre of Marcellus, the fame objections prefent 
themfelves, as appeared againft the Doric Order of the fame Building ; be- 
fides which we muft obferve, that the Cornice, ruined as it is, had like- 
wife one difadvantage originally attending it; for it was defignedly pro- 
portioned to the height of the entire Building, and not to the height of the 
Columns which fupport it: a piece of judgment for which the Archi- 
tect may be praifed, but which would render this Building, tho' it were 
entire, an imperfect example of the Ionic Order. The Example taken from 
the Amphitheatre of Vefpafian has ftill lefs right than the former, to be pro- 
pofed as a Model of the Ionic Order. It is part of a more extenfive Ar- 
cade, the Columns are not infulated, the Volutes of the Capitals are not 
fo much as traced out, nor the Echinus cut, nor are the Mouldings of the 
Cornice finifhed. The two ranges of Pilafters which are placed in the fame 
Building, immediately above this Ionic, maflive and unfinifhed as they are, 
might with as much propriety be cited as fufljeient Examples for reftoring 
the Corinthian Order. 

[b] Virtruvius, altho' he makes feveral Compliments to the Architects 
of his own Country, profeffes to have taken the Precepts of his Art, not from 
the Romans, but from the Grecian Authors, of whom he has given us an 
ample Catalogue. See the Proeme to his feventh book. 

[r] Adeb ut corpora gentis illius, feparata fint in alias civitates; ingenia 
rero folis Athenienfium mufis claufa exiftimes. " So that the Bodies of this 
people were indeed dijlributed into various other Cities, but you may reckon the 
Genius was all confined within the walk of the Athenians.. Velleius Pater- 
culus, Book I. Chap. XVIII. 

[ef] Atque illas omnium Doetrinarum inventrices Athenas, " And Athens 
the inventrcfi of all the Aits. Cicero in his treatife entitled, The Orator. 

IToXAfcv /xjy Si xai « AAwv rj ml\i< y'Ss piyrrfi xa< *o6<p\s \vpsvn$ rs^y-xv yiy::s, la; 
p'iV et'fa^ivTj xa\ dvaerjvao-a, fffu/Vij, rajs Si Suva.jj.TjV V£0<r&h<ra xai ri^t.v xaj d'vfyo-u.- 
Athens was the Af other and propitious Nurfe of many other Arts alfo, feme of 
which Jhe firfi difcovered and produced, to others fhe added Energy, Dignity, 
and Improvement. Plutarch in his DifTertation. Whether the Athenians 
were more illuftrious in Peace or War. 

advifed 



PREFACE. 



Ill 



Unadvifed cenfures of the Tnconfiderate; it may not be amifs to produce fome of them in tins place* 
And we the rather wifli to fay fomething a little more at large on this fubjeel, as it will be at the fame 
time an apology for ourfelvcs, and perhaps the bell judication of our undertaking. 

After the defeat of Xerxes, the Grecians, fecure from Invaders and in full polTeflion of their Libert v, 
arrived at the height of their Profperity. It was then, they applied themfelves with the greateft affi- 
duity and fuccefs to the culture of the Arti(*). They maintained their Independency and their Tower 
for a confiderable fpace of time, and diftinguiihed themfelves by a pre-eminence and univerfality of 
Genius, unknown to other Ages and Nations. 

During this happy period, their moft renowned Artifts were produced. Sculpture and Archlteflure 
attained their higheft degree of excellence at Athens in the time of Pericles (*), when Phidias diftin- 
guifhed himfelf with fuch fupcrior ability, that his works were confidered as wonders by the An- 
cients fo long as any knowledge or tafte remained among them. His Statue of Jupiter Olympius we 
are told was never equalled <V); and it was under his infpeaion that many of the moft celebrated Buildings 
of Athens were ereaed(rf). Several Artifls of moft diftinguiihed talents were his contemporaries, 
among whom we may reckon Callimachus, an Athenian, the inventor of the Corinthian Capital. After 
this, a fucceffion of excellent Painters, Sculptors and Archite&s appeared, and thefe Arts continued in 
Greece, at their highecT: perfection, till after the death of Alexander the Great. 

Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, it fhould be obferved, remained all that time in a very rude 
and imperfect State among the Italians (<?). 

b But 



(«) 'Airo Wirt* yjg flfm, |rj &> irivtjxorrx *oAX,> jir.Wiv TAakv ^ 't\\d ( 
vfif vlv ivSxipoH'&v. iv rouhts y«f ro7( yjpmi a", r. riyrxt Z\x l* htfitU iv&fyrci, , 
xa,, fin [H'/tr* (irr^u'oYTCu rt X HTat ytyov(*xi. * i f , <pttS,'xc. After thfe times 
(when Xerxes was defeated.) for the fpace of fifty Tears, Greece received a great 
increafe of Profperity \ for in thefe times the Arts, by means of the affluence 
which prevailed, were advanced, and the moft renowned Artifls fiourifhed\ 
amongjl whom was Phidias, Diedorus, Hook XII. Sec likcwifc Horace's 
Epiftle to Auguftus. Veife 93. 

(1) *0 H *\ii: ijy futf rjov;* rxlt 'Atfvoue. nai xio-fUf hrytt, fteyic ty Si r^tc J'AAo« f 
|fe*Xs£v i§ tfu mHt p4m Si rg 'EMxSi pafrvfii, & fyvltrtxi r»y ktyfdrp $£vmp V 
dvrnc \xtivr t < xai r}v txXxilv tkfiov, n *A xyx^wxtuy xxrxtrktv*. But that which 
was the chief delight and ornament of Athens, and the aflonifhment of Strangers, 
was the magnificence of the Temples and public Buildings that he (Pericles) 
creeled; thefe alone are a fufficicnt proof that the accounts which are given of 
the power and wealth of ancient Greece, are not fabulous. Plutarch m the life 
of Pericles. 

(c) Phidiae fimulacris nihil in illo genere perfeaius videmus. We fee nothing 
more perf eel in that kind, than the Statues of Phidias. Cicero, in his Brutus. 

Phidias pnrter Jovem Olympium, quern nemo semulatur, &c. Phidias 
beftdes the Statue of Jupiter Olympius which nobody bat rivalled, made alfo that 
of Minerva, &c. Pliny, Book XXXIV. Chap. VIII. In which work are 
many ether paffages in praife of Phidias. See likcwifc V. Maximus, Book III. 
Chap. VII. the fourth foreign example. Many other autliors might be cued 
to the fame purpofe. 

(d) 'AyapouYCrrwv Si r£r \pywv, Cvifrrfdrun piv psyM, u,Oofr, d* fytp&Twt xa! 
%*oin, rZv JsjSftCfpfc i.wA\>juuAwh* vrtfiakirixi rt,v %<ovfy/ar r« xa\\mx*i*. 
fiaki?* faqtaViw h ri rxxes See. Uxvrx Si Ztiire xau ro'rrwr hivxvKoe tr eirfS 
fttSixc, ***** it.iy*Kt-j< dex'UKTOyac tfrfm xxt njpfltf f& \ff*f, Thefe Struc- 
tures (of Pericles) /lately as they were inmagnitude, and inimitable for their graceful 

form and elegance (every Artificer being ambitious that the diligence of the workman- 
fhtp, might furpofs the beauty of the defignj were yet more wonderful for the fpeed 
with which they were accomplifhed ; &c. It was Phidias who had the direelion 
and the fuper in ten dance of all thefe vjcrks for him (for Pericles) altho* great 
Architeds and exec lent Workmen were employed in creeling them. Plutarch in 
the life of Pericles. 

(e) It may here be objected, perhaps, that the ancient Inhabitants of Tuf- 
cany had applied themfelves to thefe Arts, and had made no inconfidcrable pro* 
grefs in them ; efpecially in Sculpture and Architecture. 

The Tufcans indeed feem to have been the beft Artifts of ancient Italy, and 
It muft be granted, that the art of caning Figures in brafs was very ancient 
among them. Of thefe Figures a fufficient number are ftill remaining, to 



lliow, what degree of merit we may altign to their Authors. Marty prints 
copied from them have been published by the learned Dr. Gori ; by that 
great ornament of his country and of the prefent Age, Count Caylus; and 
by others. They all perfectly juftify Quintilian, in the judgement he hal 
made concerning the Tufcan 8tatues, when illuurating the fcveral kinds of 
Eloquence, ami the gradual improvement of the oratorial Art, by exam- 
ples taken from Painting and Sculpture, he fays, (Book XII. Chap. X.) 
* Similis in Statuis differentia. Nam tluiiora, 8c Tufcanicis proxima Calort 
" at<|ue Egefias, jam minus rigida Calamis, molliora adhuc fupra di is 
M Myron fecit. Diligentia ac decor in Polycicto fupra cseteras," &c. which 
paflagc may be thus ren.L-red in Ertglirti. 

Thcie is the fame difference in Statues, thife made by CaloH and Hegefias at* 
harder, and isme near the Tufcan manner; thofe of Calamis have Ic/s rigidity ; 
and thofe of Myron have yet greater tendernefs and delicacy ; the works of Poly- 
c.'etus furpafs the others in being high y finijhed, and in ccmelinefs of form, &c* 
What it wanting in Polyclctus, may be found in Phidias and Alcamenes, et 
Phidias is accounted a better Artfl at reprefenting Gods than Men. In workt 
of ivory, however, he it far beyond all Rival/fop ; had he even performed 
nothing more than the Minerva at Athens, or the Oympian Jupiter at Efts: 
the beauty of which feems to have added fomething even to the cflablfhcd <U- 
votion of thofe days ■ to fuch a degree did the majejly of the work correfpona* 
with that of the God. By this it is plain, that Quintilian, who muft have 
feen the beft Tufcan Statues, thought them inferior to thofe of Calort 
and Hegefias, the moft unfkilful of all the Grecian Arties he has inllanced. 
We may likcwifc obferve that when Pliny fays, the Art of ofling Figures 
in brafs, was very ancient in Italy, he wonders at the fame time, that 
the Images of the Gods, which were dedicated in Temples, were chiefly 
of Wood or Clay, till after the conqueft of Alia, from whence Luxury 
took its rife. Book XXXIV. Chap. VII. So tbat neither the materials 
nor the workmanlhip of the Tufcan Statues in Rome, might compare with 
thofe of Greece. 

Let us now conGder the ancient Architecture of Italy. If we compare 
the Tufcan Column and its Entablature, with arty of the Grecian Orders, it 
will hardly appear neceffary to attempt a proof of its inferior Elegance in 
what regards the particular Mouldings, and Ornaments. In the general 
Appearance, and the Eftec! of the whole, a Tufcan Building might never- 
thclefs be noble and magnificent. That this however was nor the cafe 
but that on the contrary, thefe Buildings were low, and their Columns 
too far diftant from each other, which is the revcrfc of magnificence, w« 
may learn from Vitruvius, (Book III. Chap. II.) where he beftows this ccn- 
furc on them, and appropriates the meaneft fpecies of Intercolumniation to 
the Tufcan Temples. He aficrwards (Book IV. Chap. VII.) delivers the 
neceffary Precepts for the conftrucY»on of thefe Temples) and it muft be 

con- 



IV 



PREFACE. 



But when the Romans had fubdued Greece, they foon became enamoured of thefe delightful ^ Arts , (*). 
They adorned their City with Statues and Pictures, the Spoils of that conquered Country (6 ; and, 
adopting the Grecian Style of Archive, they now firft began to ered Buildings of great Elegance 
and Magnificence (c). They feem not however to have equalled the Ongmals from whence they had 
borrowed their Tafte, either for purity of Defign, or delicacy of Execution. 

For altho' thefe Roman Edifices were moft probably defigned and executed by Grecians (d) , as Rome 
never produced many extraordinary Artifts of her own, yet Greece herfelf was at that :«m iff** T de- 
generated from her former excellence, and had long ceafed to difplay that fupenonty of Genius, which 
diftinguiihed her in the Age of Pericles and of Alexander^). To this a long ^es «f M.sfc . ones had 
reduced her, for having been opprefTed by the Macedonians firft, and afterwards fubdu d by the Ro- 
mans wid, he lofs of her Liberty, that love of Glory likewife, and that fublimity of Sprit which had 
animated her Artifts, as well as her Warriors, her Statefmen, and her Philosophers, „jdj M JW 
formed her peculiar Character, were now extinguilhed, and all her exquifite Arts languiftied and were 
near expiring. 

They were indeed at length affiduoufly cherifted and cultivated at Rome. That City being now 
Miftress of the World, and poffefled of unbounded Wealth and Power, became ambitious . d£ b of the 
utmoft embelliftiments which thefe Arts could beftow. They could not however, tho affifted by Roman 



confeffed, that Columns fct at fo great a diftance from each ether, with 
Architraves of Wood, and fupporting a Pediment of extraordinary height, 
the Tympanum of which is of Brick or Wood, are particulars in his 
defcription, which do not convey an advantageous Idea of Tufcan Architec- 
ture, or of the priftine magnificence of Rome. The Temple of Ceres 
near the Circus Maximus is one of the Tufcan Examples which Vitru- 
vius cites. We may therefore fuppofe, that it continued to his time, one of 
the moft perfeft of its kind in Rome; and of confequence that Tufcan 
Architecture had not received any confiderable improvements there, fmce 
the firft ereaing of this Temple. It was however built by A. Pofthumius 
the Diaator, and confecrated by Spurius Caffius, when he was Conful, 
(Dionyf. Halicarn. Book V. and VI.) in the Year of Rome 261. that is 
to fay in the ruder times of the Roman Republic, and more than 45° Y ears 
before Vitruvius wrote. Auguftus began to rebuild this Temple, and it 
was fini.<hed by Tiberius (Tacitus, Ann. II.) it is therefore of the more 
ancient one, which Vitruvius fpeaks. 

[a] Grecia capta ferum Viaorem cepit, & Artes, 
Intulit agrefti Latio. - - - - 

v. 156, fed in longum tamen aevum, 

Manfcrunt hodieque manent veftigia ruris. 

Greece when fubdued, captivated the fierce Conqueror, and brought the Arts into 
rujiic Latium, tec. yet for a Length of years the tiaces of tuflicity remained, and 
fill remain. Horace's Epiftle to Auguftus. 

[b] Mummius deviaa Achaia replevit urbem, (ftatuis fcilicet) Multa et 
Luculli invexere. Aummius having conquered Achaia filled the City with 
Statue:. The Lucullus's alfo brought many into it, P iny, Book XXXlV. 
Chap. VII. Tabulis autem exiernis auaoritatem Romae publice fecit primus 
omnium L. Mummius. But L. Mummius was the fifi who publickly gave 
reputation to foreign Piaures. Pliny Book XXXV. Chap. IV. His Triumph 
was adorned with Grecian Piaures and Statues, and he was firft who dedicated 
them in Temples and other public Buildings at Rome. 

M Metellus Macedonicus, contemporary to L. Mummius, was the fiift 
who ereaed a marble Temple in Rome. He built alfo a celebrated Portico 
there, called after his name; and adorned it with twenty-five Equeftr.an 
Statues which he brought from Macedonia, and winch had been nude by 
Lyf.ppus, at the command of Alexander the Great, to honour fuch of 
his Soldiers as had been flam in battle by the Pcrfians, at the paffage 
of the River Granicus. This Portico of Melius was enclofed by two 
Temples, one dedicated to Apollo and the other to Juno; both of them 
adorned with celebrated Grecian Statues. " Hie eft Metellus Macedom- 
« cus, qui Porticus, quae fuere circundat* duabus sd.bus fine nom.ne 
"pofitis, qu* nunc Oaavi* porticibus ambiuntur feceiat: quique hanc 
« turmam ftatuarum Equeilrium, qua. frontem aedium fpeaant, hodieque 
« maximum ornamentum ejus loci, ex Macedonia detulit, &c. Hie idem, 
- primus omnium Rom* *dem ex marmore in iis ipfis monument.s mohtus, 



« vel magnificent!* vel luxuri* princeps fait" ThisisMetellus ff°»>«»> 
who built the Portico which was encofid by the two Temples ereaed without 
any Option on them, which are now encompafed by the Porticos of OXavia, 
&c. Veil. Pat. Book 1. Chap. XI. 

\i\ The Temples mentioned in the foregoing Note were built by Gre- 
cian Architect Nee Sauron atque Batrachum obliterari convenit, qui 
fecere Templa Oaavi* Po.ticibus inclufa, natione ipfi Lacones, &c. AV 
Jhould I forget to mention Sauros and Batrachus who built the Temples encom- 
paffed by the Porticos of Otlavia, they were Lacedemonians, and fome are of 

opinio- *« '«'* ** M they buUt tbCm ^ the>r ™ rT'l 7 U 
honoured with an hfcription, which was refufed them; they obtained it however 

in another manner, for there remain yet on the Bafesof the Columns thefymbcls 

of their Names, a Lizard and a Frog. Pliny, Book XXXVI. Chap. V. 

A*ripp* Pantheon decoravit Diogenes Athenienfis, Diogenes an Athenian 
JtlZd the Pantheon of Agrippa. Plmy, Book XXXVI Chap. V And 
Xiphilinus in the life of Trajan informs us that ApoUodorus a Green 
Architea, was employed by that Emperor to bu.ld his Forum, his Odeum, 
and his Gymnafium, all of them celebrated Edifices at Rome. Many other 
fuch inftances might be produced. 

But befides that Grecian Architect were frequently employed at Rome^he 
Columns alfo with which they adorned their Buildings were fomet.mes finifhed 
in Greece, and fpoiled afterwards in Rome, by being cut over aga.n and 
adjufted to the Tafte of the Romans. 'O * <*& Iftf »* **«*»»*» 

three former having periled by Fire) was completed and dedicated b^miUan 
&c The Columns were cut out of Pentelic Marble, having their thicknefs mo/i 
beautifully proportioned to their length; for we faW them at Athens. But being 
cut over coin and poifhed at Rome, they did not gain fo much in elegance as 
they Icjl infymmeuy, they appear too fender and are void of beauty. Plutarch 
in the life of Poplicola. 

(c) It is faid of Mummius, he was fo ignorant in what related to the Arts, 
that when he had taken Corinth, and was fending to Italy, Piaures and 
Statues, which had been brought to perfeaion by the hands of the greateft 
Miners, he ordered thofc who had the charge of conveying them to be 
threatened, if they lofi thefe, they fhould give him new ones in their fead. But 
this, it is plain, had never been cited as an extraordinary inftance of ignorance, 
if the Grecians of thofe days had not greatly degenerated from their Anceftors 
i„ the pradice of thofe Arts. See Velleius Paterculus Book I. Chap XII. 
his words are as follow. "Mummius tarn rudis fuit, ut capta Conn ho. 
u cum m aximorum artificum perfedas manibus tabulas ac 1 atuas ,n Itaham 
« portandas locaret, juberet p>*dici condueentibus,/ eas perdtdtfent, novas eos 
" reddituros." 

Muni- 






PREFACE. 



Munificence, reafccnd to that height of Perfeaion, which they had attained in Greece during the happy 
period we have already mentioned. And it is particularly remarkable, that when the Roman Authors 
themfelves, celebrate any exquifite produaion of Art; it is the Work of Phidias, P,axitele S Myron, 
Lyfippus, Zeuxis, Apelles, or in brief of fome Artift, who adorned that happy Period; and not of 
thole, who had worked at Rome, or had lived nearer to their own times than the Age of Alexander. 

It feemed therefore evident that Greece is the Place where the moft beautiful Edifices were ere&ed, 
and where the purefl and moft elegant Examples of ancient Archite&ure are to be difcovcred. 

But whether or no, it be allowed, that thefe Edifices deferved all the encomiums which have been 
beftowed on them; it will certainly be a ftudy of fome delight and curiofity, to obferve wherein the 
Grecian and Roman ftyle of Building differ; for differ they certainly do; and to decide, by a judicioi-s 
examination, which is the beft. It is as ufeful, to attend the progrefs of an Art while it is improving; 
as to trace it back towards its firft perfedion, when it has declined. In one of thefe lights, therefore, 
the Performance which we now offer to the Public, will, it is hoped, be well received. 

Thefe were fome of the confiderations which determined me, conjointly with Mr. Revett, to vifit 
Athens, and to meafure and delineate with all poffible diligence, whatever we might find there, that de- 
ferved our attention. We were then at Rome, where we had already employed 6 or 7 years in the 
ftudy of Painting, and there it was that towards the end of the year i 748, I firft drew up a brief ac- 
count, of our motives for undertaking this Work, of ihe form we propofed to give it, and of the fubjeds 
of which we then hoped to compofe it(«). Many copies of this were difperfed by our Friends ; and the 
general approbation thefe Propofals met with, confirmed us in our rcfolution. 

c The 



[«] This Account of our undertaking, was as follows. Rome 1748. 
PROPOSALS for publishing an accurate defcription of the Antiqui- 
ties of Athens, &c. by James Stuart, and Nicholas Revett. 

" There is perhaps no part of Europe, which more defervedly claims the 
attention and excites the curiofity of the Lovers of polite Literature, than the 
Territory of Attica, and Athens its capital City ; whether we reflect on the 
Figure it makes in Hiftory, on account of the excellent Men it has produced 
in every Art, both of War and Peace; or whether we confider the Anti- 
quities which are faid to be ftill remaining there, Monuments of the good 
fenfe and elevated genius of the Athenians, and the moft perfect Models of 
what is excellent in Sculpture and Archite&ure." 

" Many Authors have mentioned thefe remains of Athenian Art as woiks 
of great magnificence and moft exquifite tafte; but their defcriptiom are 
fo confufed, and their meafures, when they have given any, arc fo infuffi- 
cient, that the moft expert Architect could not, from all the books that 
have been published on this fubject, form a diftinct Idea of any one Build- 
ing thefe Authors have defcribed. Their writings fecm rather calculated to 
raife out Admiration, than to fatisfy our Curiofity or improve our Tafte." 

" Rome who borrowed her Arts, and frequently her Artificers from Greece, 
was adorned with magnificent Structures and excellent Sculptures: a ennii- 
derable number of which have been publifhed, in the Collections of Dcfgo- 
detz, Palladio, Scrlio, Santo Bartoli, and other ingenious Men ; and altho' 
many of the Originals which they have copied arc fince deftroyed, yet the 
memory, and even the form of them, nay the Arts which produced them, 
feem fecure from perifhing ; fince the induftry of thofc excellent Artifts, has 
difperfed Reprefentations of them through all the polite Nations of Europe." 

n But Athens the Mother of elegance and politenefs, whofe magnificence 
fcarce yielded to that of Rome, and who for the beauties of a correct ftyle muft 
be allowed to furpafs her ; has been almoft entirely neglected. So that un- 
lefs exact copies of them be fpeedily made, all her beauteous Fabricks, her 
Temples, her Theatres her Palaces, now in ruins, will drop into Obli- 
vion ; and Poftcrity will have to reproach us, that we have not left them 
a tolerable Idea of what was fo excellent, and fo much deferved our at- 
tention ; but that we have furFcrcd the perfection of an Art to perifti, when 
it was perhaps in our power to have retrieved it." 

99 The reafon indeed, why thofc Antiquities have hitherto been thus neglec- 
ted, is obvious. Greece, fince the revival of the Arts, has been in the poflcf- 
fion of Barbarians; and Artifts capable of fuch a Work, have been able to 
fatisfy their paflion, whether it was for Fame or Piofit, without rifking them- 
felves among fuch profeflcd enemies to the Arts as the Turks arc. The ig- 



norance and jealoufy of that uncultivated people may, perhaps, render an 
undci taking of this fort, ftill fomewhat dangerous." 

u Among the Travellers who have vifitcd thefe Countries, fome have been 
abundantly furniflicd with Literature, but they have all of them been too little 
converfant with Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, to give us tolerable 
Ideas of what they faw. The Books, therefore, in which their Travels are 
defcribed, are not of fuch utility nor fuch entertainment to the Public, as a 
pcrfon acquainted with the practice of thefe Arts might have rendered them. 
For the beft verbal defections cannot be fuppofed to convey fo adequate an 
Idea, of the magnificence and elegance of Buildings; the fine form, cxprcf- 
fion, or proportion of Sculptures; the beauty and variety of a Country, or 
the cxat Scene of any celebrated ASion, a* may be formed fiom drawings 
made on the fpot, with diligence and fidelity, by the hand of an Atti: 1 ." 

We have therefore rcfolvcd to make a journey to Athens ; and to publifh 
at our return, fuch Bemains of that famous City as we may be permitted 
to copy, and that appear to merit our attention ; not doubting but a worJc 
of this kind, will meet with the approbation of all thole Gentlemen who 
are lovers of the Arts \ and ;.(Tuiing ourfelvcs, that thofc Artifts who aim at 
peifection, muft be more pleafed, and belter inftructed, the nearer they can 
approach the Fountain Head of their Att ; for fo we may call thofc examples 
which the greatc.1 Artifts, and the beft Ages of antiquity have left them. 

" We propofc that each of the Antiquities which are to compofe this 
" Work, fli.ill \k treated of in the following manner. Firft a View of it 
" will be given, faithfully exhibiting the prefent Appearance of that parti- 
" cular Building and of the citcumjacent Country; to this will follow, Ar- 
" chitectural Plans and Elevations, in which will be expreffed the mea- 
•* fure of every Moulding, as well as the general difpofition and ordon- 
19 nance of the whole Building; and laftlv will be given, exact delineations 
** of the Statues and Baflb- relievos with which thofe Buildings are deco- 
" rated. Thefe Sculptures we imagine will be extremely curious, as well 
M on account of their workmanlhip, as of the fubjects they reprefent. To 
11 thefe we propofc adding fome Maj>s and Charts, (hewing the general 
«' fituation and connection of the whole Work. All this perhaps may be 
*• conveniently dtftributcd into three folio Volumes, after the folio 
u manner." 

"The fii ft Volume may contain the Antiquities belonging to the Acro- 
•• poiis, or ancient fortrefs of Athens ; the fecond thofe of the City ; and 
•* the third, thofe which lye difperfed in different parts of the Athenian 
" Tcrritoiy : of all which the annexed Catalogue will give a more diftinct 
'• Idea." 

Firft 



\1 



PREFACE. 






The neceiTary preparations for our journey required fome time. We did not fet out from Rome till 
t Jin o March ■ 75 o, and we arrived at Veniee too late in the year for the Curran Sh.ps, on boa d 
II« we had defigned to embark for Zant : this difappointment we perceived would neeeffa-dy 
d lay ou proceedings for feveral Months. That fo much of our time might not remam unemployed, 
we Lnt fo Pola in Iflrla, to examine the antiquities of that Place; alluring ourfelves, on the tefl - 
m(mv of Palladio and Serlio, that they deferved our attention; and hoping, not only to mdulge our 
cnriofuy, but to find materials there that would employ our vacant time, and enable us to produce to 
our Friends a proper Specimen of the manner, in which we propofed to execute our Atheman Work, 
nor were we difappointed in thefe expectations. 

On our return from Pola to Venice, we were fill obliged to wait fome Months for »~ W<^ 
faoe- thefe delays however did not difcourage us; we had the advantage of being known to S r Jame, 
Orl;, who was at that time his Majefi/s Refident at Veniee. He was pleafed to f^^g* 
ly in our Succefs, and was the firft who fet on foot a SubfcnpUon for our m f^™™^£%* 
on the 10 January, i 75 «, we embarked on board an tnglifh Ship, bound for the Wand of Zant. 
^ on Z at we contimLd our Voyage in a Vefle. of that Wand, and touching in our way at Ch.arenza 
Patrafs Pentaaioi, *nd Voftizza, we arrived fafely on March r,, N.S. at Connth. After a fhor flay 
ri d r g tvhi h we meafored an ancient Temple and made fome Views, we were formed that . 
Veil of Egina was in the Port of Cenchrea, ready to fail with the firft fair wmd to Porto Ltone 1. 
ancLnt Pireus, once the moft celebrated harbour of Athens. This was an opportumty not to be ne- 
laed; we crofted the Ifthmus to Cenchrea, from whence our VelTel departed very early on the 1 6 
°o f Mar d N.S. we landed and dined at Megara, Qept at Salamis, and on the > 7 at n.ght anchored m 



Firft VOLUME. 

« A large View of the Acropolis. 

m A general Plan of the antiquities included in this Vo- 

" lume. 
« The Propylsea, the Temple of Vidory, &c. Doric and 

" Ionic. 
« The Doric Temple of Minerva Parthenion, enriched 

** with Sculpture. 
" The Ionic Temples of Minerva Polias, and Erechtheus 

" and that of Pandrofus, adorned with Caryatides. 
»« The Theatre of Bacchus. 
* The Church of the Panagia Spiliotiflfa. 

Second VOLUME. 

" A large View of the City of Athens. 

" A Plan of the remains of the ancient City. 

«• A Chart of the three Ports of Athens. 

" The Temple of Jupiter Olympius, Corinthian Order. 

" The Temple of Auguftus. Doric Older. 

" The Temple of 1 hefeus, Doric Order enriched with 

44 Sculpture. 
" The Temple of Ceres, Ionic Order. 
« The Odeum of llerodes Atticus, or of Regilla. 
" The Monument of Philopappus, Corinthian Order. 
« The Tower of the Winds, enriched with Sculptures. 
«* The Lanthorn of Demofthcnes, enriched with Sculp- 

" tures. 
*< The Arch of Hadrian, Corinthian Order. 
" The Columns of Hadrian, Corinthian Order. 
«« An Antique Bridge on the IlifTus. 
" The Acqueduft of Adrian, Ionic Order. 

Third VOLUME. 
" The Antiquities of Eleufis, Megara, Sunium, &c. 



Views. 

I 



Archi- 
tecture 



10 



Sculp- 
ture. 



I 
I 

1 
I 

I 

I 

I 
I 
I 

I 
I 



20 

4 
4 



i 
i 
io 

5 

8 

7 

i 

7 
6 

7 
9 

4 



50 



12 



3 
8 



« All the different Subjects we (hall treat of, will be illuftratcd, with fuch 
<* explanations and defections as may ferve to render the Prints intelligible; 
'< and this will be chiefly done, by pointing out the relation they may have 
« to the doarine of Vitruvius, or to the accounts of them which Strabo, 
*' Paufanias or other ancient writers have left us. 

Since our return to England we have found it convenient, to make fome 
change in the difpofition, which we had originally intended to give this Work. 



This change was fpecified in the Propofals publidied by us at London, January 
*755- 

The foregoing fcheme was firft printed at London in the beginning of 
the year 1751, by Colonel George Gray, a Gentleman whofe love to the 
Arts made him dehrous of recommending this Work, and who has fince 
that time conferred many other obligations on us. It was afterwards, from the 
fame motive, printed at Venice in the beginning of the year 1753, and 
difperfed in various parts of Europe by J. Smith, Efq; the Brit.fti Conful 
at Venice. Our Friend Mr. Samuel Ball printed it in London in the year 
x- s2 , and prefently afterwards, that part of the Scheme which is diihnguiflied 
with Commas, was with little variation printed again in London, by thefe 
zealous promoters of the Arts James Dawkins and Robert Wood Efq". 
To thefe Gentlemen the world is indebted for the defcnption of Palmjra 
and Balbec, and they have, in the account of Palmyra, done us the honour 
to mention us to the Public, and to recommend our undertaking, in which 
they had already fcen fome progrefs made; for they vifited Athens, fortunate- 
ly for us, while we were there. It is with great pleafure we take tins op- 
portunity of acknowledging, that it would not have been in our power to con- 
tinue a fufficient time at Athens for the completion of our Work had it 
not been for the Liberality of Mr. Dawkins, who to his many other Virtues, 
added that of being a real Lover and a moft munificent Patron of the Arts. 
The Death of fuch a Friend and Bcnefaaor is a misfortune which we mail 
always lament, altho' the generouty of fome Perfons of the higheft Diftinaion, 
has prevented it from affeaing in the lean, the Publication of our Work. It 
were too great a facrifke to delicacy, mould we forbear to mention the 
obligations thev have bellowed on us, tho» at the fame time, we have 
rcafon to believe, they would be better pleafed in having thefe alfo, as 
well as their names, pafled over in f.lence. We muft here obferve that 
Monf. Le Boy was at Rome in the year 1748, when our firft Scheme 
of this Work appeared there, and foon became very generally a Topic of 
difcourfe, among the men of curiofity and learning in that City ; and when 
he read the defcription of Palmyra, which he has cited, he muft have known 
that we had already employed ourfelves for fome time at Athens, in the 
execution of our Scheme. Now by his own account he did not refolve on 
a journey to Greece till 1753, nor fet out from Venice, till May 5, *754i 
which is more than a Year, after the laft publication of our Scheme dated 
from Athens, was printed at Venice by Conful Smith. So that whatever 
motives of improvement to himfelf, or glory to his Country, Monf Le Roy 
has thought proper to affign, for his refolution of vifiting Greece, and defin- 
ing the Antiquities there ; he feems to have formed it, in confequence of our 
having firft undertaken the fame Talk. 

the 









PREFACE. 



Vll 



the Pircus. The next morning we were conduced from hence to Athens by a Greek, who rcfided 
there in quality of Britifh Conful. 

Our firft Pufinefs at Athens was to vifit the Antiquities which remain there; and we were haft)? 
enough to find, that they fully anfwered our higheft expeaations. We therefore refolved that we would 
fpare no expence or fatigue, that might any way contribute to the better execution of the Tafk we had 
fet ourfelves. In particular we determined to avoid Hade, dnd Syftem, thofe moil dangerous enemies 
to accuracy and fidelity, for we had frequently, with great regret, obferved their bad effect in many, 
otherwife excellent, Works of this kind. We have no where obtruded a Line of imaginary Ueftoratiori 
on the Reader; but whenever the ruined parts of thefe Buildings are fupplied, either from Materials 
found on the Spot, or from what our own Ideas have fuggefted, (very few inftanccs of the latter will 
occur) the Reader is appnfed of it, and the reafons, or authorities for fuch Reftoration are always pro- 
duced. We have carefully examined as low as to the Foundation of every Building that we have copied, 
tho' to perform this, it was generally necessary to get a great quantity of earth and rubbifh removed! 
an operation which was fometimes attended with very confiderable expence. 

We have contented ourfelves with fetting down the Meafures of all thefe Buildings in En^lim 
Feet and Inches, and decimal parts of an Inch; purpofely forbearing to mention Modules, as they 
neceffarily imply a Syftem, and perhaps too frequently incline an Author to adopt one. Any Artift 
may however from our Meafures form whatever kind of Module, or modulary divifion he beft fancies, 

It may here be proper to obferve, that we were provided with Inftruments made in London, by 
the beft Artifts, one of which was a Rod of Brafs, three feet long, moft accurately divided by Mr- Bird, 

We had been at Athens about two Months, when Mr. Dawkins and Mr. Wood arrived there; but 
we had not the happinefs of feeing Mr, Bouverie with them, for that gentleman died in Afia Minor, 
and never vifited the Antiquities of Athens, of Balbec, or of Palmyra. Signor Piranefi, a very excellent 
Italian Artift, uninformed it fhould feem of this Circumftance, has by miflake quoted part of a Letter (a) f 
faid to be written by this Gentleman from Ephefus, as if he thought it a fufficient Authority to prove, 
that there are no remains of Antiquity which deferve our notice, either in the Cities of Greece, or 
in any other Places of the Levant, whereas the Letter can only relate to thofe places which Mr. Bou- 
verie had actually vifited. 

We quitted Athens at the end of the Year 1755, and went to ThefTalonica, now called Salonlcaj 
where we were received, and treated for fome Months with great hofpitality, by P. Paradife, Ffq; the 
Britifh Conful at that place. Here we copied the remains of a very ancient and beautiful Corinthian 
Colonnade; and fhould have added to them. fome remarkable Buildings fuppofed to be of the A^e of 
Theodofius, but that a moll: definitive Peftilencc, which broke out while we were here, rendered the 
meafuring of them unfafe, and indeed impracticable. In our way from hence to Smyrna, we vifited 
feveral of the Iflands in the yEgean Sea, corruptly called the Archipelago. From Smyrna we fet out 
for England, where we arrived in the beginning of the Year 1 j55^ having fpent in all near five Years 
in this laborious and expenfive Expedition from Rome to Athens, and from thence to London. 

The Architectural Prints compofe, I imagine, the moft ufeful and interefling part of this Work; 
and at the fame time, that, which I apprehend is leaft liable to cenfure: for our joint endeavours 
were here diligently employed, and my Friend Mr. Revett wholly confined his attention to this part. 
If neverthelefs any one mould doubt of the accuracy of the Meafures, becaufe they differ fo greatly 
from thofe which Monf. Le Roy has given, I can only aflure him, that in a confiderable num- 



(a) In his late Work entitled, Delia Magnificenza ed Architettora de* 
Romani, opera di Gio Battiila Piranefi, Socio della Reale Accademia di 
Londra. Roma, MDCCLXI. We (hall obferve that before Mr. Bouverie 
vifited Ephefus, he had travelled over the Northern part of Afia Minor, 
and on feeing the many confiderable and beautiful Antiquities which re- 
main at Cyzicum, Pcrgamus, Sardis, Teios, &c. he always exprefled the 
highert fatisfacYion. At Ephefus, befides fome veAiges of the famous Tem- 
ple of Diana, he faw the Remains of a Temple, exquifitely wrought, the 



Columns of which are about five feet in Diameter, furnifhing one of the 
richeft examples of the Corinthian Order, that is any where extant- From 
Ephefus he pafled thro' a noble Scene of Antiquities, to Samos, Miletus, 
Priene, and Magnefia on the Meander, now called Guzel Ifijjar y or Fair- 
Caftle, at which lafl place, to the infinite regret of all that knew him, 
he died. The World will have the pleafure of admiring the number and 
beauty of the Remains in Afia Minor, when Mr. Wood's leifure will per- 
mit him to pubJifh that part of his Travels. 

d ber 



viii PREFACE. 

ber of them, at the taking of which I affifted with Mr. Revett, and in many others, which occafionally 
I meafured after him, I have always found reafon to praife his exa&nefs. 

It is now time to acknowledge that all the Miftakes and Inaccuracies, which the Reader may meet 
with in the Preface, or in the enfuing Chapters, are to be charged wholly to my Account In each 
Chapter I have generally given the modern Athenian Name of the Antiquity there treated of, and 
alio that by which it is mentioned in the writings of Sir George Wheler, and Dr. Spon. I have 
likewife added my own conjectures concerning its ancient Name, and the purpofe for which it was 
erected. After this follows the Defcription of the Plates, and fome obfervations on the errors of other 
Travellers, who have vifited and defcribed thefe Antiquities. 

I muft likewife anfwer for whatever faults have been.committed, either in delineating the Sculptures, 
or painting the Views, which are engraven in this Work: my utmoft diligence however has been ufed, to 
render them faithful Reprefentations of the Originals. The Sculptures were, for the moft part, meafured 
with the fame care and exadtnefs, that was beftowed on the Architecture. The Views were all fin.lb- 
ed on the fpot; and in thefe, preferring Truth to every other confideration, I have taken none of thole 
Liberties with which Painters are apt to indulge themfelves, from a defire of rendering their repre- 
fentations of Places more agreeable to the Eye and better Mures. Not an object is here embelhfhed 
by ftrokes of Fancy, nor is the fituation of any one of them changed, excepting only in the View ot 
the Doric Portal [Chap. I.] where the Fountain on the Fore-ground is fomewhat turned from its real 
pofition; the inducement to which will be given in the Defcription of that View. The Figures that 
are introduced in thefe Views are drawn from Nature, and reprefent the Drefs and Appearance of the 
prefent Inhabitants of Athens. 

Thus much for the Motives which engaged us in this Work, and for the manner in which the 
execution of it has been conduced. The encouragement, that we have met with from Perfons 
the moft eminent for their Dignity, their Learning, and their Love of the Arts, is an Honour which 
we here gratefully acknowledge. It has hitherto animated us in the progrefs of our Work, and makes 
us hope, that this Volume may find a favourable Reception. 






JAMES STUART. 




A Dejcription of the general View of Athens, &c. 



IX 



TU, IS rn fi 1 5*2 , eXhibit V r eraI V i CW ° f A,he " S and the circum >« nt C °»»"y. with the Saronic Gulf, 
the Iflands of Salam.s and ,Eg,na, and the Shore, of the Peloponne.us from Corinth to Cape Scvlleum. It 
was taken , from the foot of Mount Anchefmus. the two Columns on the fore-ground are the Remains of 
a Budd.ng called by Wheler and Sport the Aquedua of Hadrian, tho' it feems rather to have been the Front of a 
Fefervon, that fupphed a part of Athens with Water. Several Arches of the Aquedufl, which conveyed the Water 
to «h.s Refervotr are yet (landing in different Places on the North-Side of Turco bourn, the Brileffus of the Ancients 
The moft remarkable objects in this View, are pointed out by the following References, which are made by the in. 
terletf.ons of certa.n .maginary perpendicular Lines, with other imaginary horizontal Lines. The perpendicular Lines 
are marked by the cap.tal Letters on the upper and lower Margin of the Print, as A, A ; B, B- C C &c The 
horizontal Lines are marked by numeral Characters placed in the Margins on the right and left fide of the Print as 
I , I ; 2, 2 ; 3, 3 ; &c. ' ' 

A, i, 2, 3, Mount Hymettus. 

A, 4 . The Convent of St. John called Careh, fituated at the foot of Mount Hymettus. The Road from Athens td 
thrs Convent erode, a confutable part of the Dirtria formerly called Agra, which lies between the ll.flus and 
Mount Hymettus. 

A 6 The Temple of Diana Agrotera, according to Wheler and Spori ; tt (lands on the Southern, or farther fide of the 
IhiTus, and is now a Church dedicated to St. Peter crucified, and called Stauromtnos Petros. There is an ancient Mofaic 
Pavement in it, and we have occr.iion to fpeak of it in the fecond Chapter. Page 1 1. 

B, 4 , The Promontory Scylleum in the Peloponncfus. Near tbis Promontory is an Illarid called Hydrea, the Inhabitants of 
which have many Vcflels, and are reckoned the beft Mariners itt thefe Parts. 

B, 5, The Remains of the Stadium Panathenaicum lying on the Southern Side of the Iliflus. Here is likewife a Brid^ 
over the HifTus, on which they formerly croiTed from Athens to the Stadium. This Bridge is here marked by the Inter* 
fedion B. 6; At prefent one of the Arches of it is deftroyed, and the whole is in a ruinous condition. 

C, 5. The Temple of Ceres Agrotera, according to Wheler and Spon. It is now a Church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, 
and is called *H rW>/« * t?> *•«>*,. or, St. Marys on the Rock. This Temple is the fubjed of the fecond Chapter. It 
{lands juft over the Fountain Calltrrhoe on the Southern SiJcof the Iliflus, 

D, 4, The Eaftcrn end of the Iiiand of iEgina, near which is a fmall pointed Rock called Turk, fometimes miftaken for a 
VelTel under Sail. 

D, 5, The Remains of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, called by Wheler and Spon, the Columns of Hadrian. 

E, 3, The higheft point of iEgina. 

F, 5, The Arch of Hadrian. 

G, 2, A Mountain on the confines of Argos and Epidaurus, probably the ancient Arachneum. 
G, 3, A Mountain in the neighbourhood of Epidaurus. 

H, 3, The Mufeura, a Hill in Athens, on which is placed the Monument of Philopappus. This Monument is in the inter- 
feron H, 2. 

I, 1, The Temple of Minerva in the Acropolis. It was called the Parthenon and Hecatompedon. 
K, 2, The higheft point of Salamis. This Ifland is now called Colouri. 

L, 4, Some Fragments of an ancient Column of white Marble,, which are yet remaining on Punto Barbaro, a Promontory 
of Salamis, at the entrance of the Streights which feparate that Ifland from the Continent of Attica. They are pro- 
bably the Remains of a Trophy creeled for the Victory of Salamis (a). Thefe Fragments are yet very difcernable from 
Athens, and rauft have been much more fo, when the Column ,was entire. The Monument of a Victory, which had 
eftablimed the Liberties of Greece, and in which the Atheniaus had acquired the greateft glory, muft have been to them a 
moft pleafing and a moft interefting object; and we may for that reafon conclude, that they placed it on a part of the 
Ifland, where thofe who viewed it from Athens, might fee it to the greatcft advantage* which intention this fituation 
perfectly anfwers. 

M, 6, The Temple of Thefeus. 

N, 2, A Mountain on the Confines of Arcadia, 

N, 4, The Aero Corinthus. 



(o) 'Ev SaAau.w it two f* 'Afr^ fc» Uo$y, r^o iirci*xi6ylrvur In Salamis there is a Temple of Diana, and there is alfo a frothy that was 

iri ii, rixv f$ W «cAr; f i N*o»Aiovy #JfNf iyiyvr* ymriu r?.; 1 ^.. creeled for the yiffory which the Grecians obtained, by means of Themiflocles the 

fon $f Nece/es. Paufcnias Book I, Chap. XVI. 

c O f 2, The 



X 



A Defcription of the general View of Athens. 



O, 2, The higheft point of Mount Corydalus, now called Skaramanga. On the fide of this Mountain is a Conventwith 
the beft built, and moft ancient Chriftian Church in all Attica. It ftands on a fituation now called Daphne, and is per- 
haps built out of the ruins of the ancient Aphidna, an Attic Demos, or Town, of the Leontine Tribe; for we faw federal 
ruined Infcriptions here, in which the word API AN A was diftinctly legible. 

The Figures reprefent Haffan Aga, the Vaiwode of Athens, accompanied by the principal Turks of the City and by 
their Servants. He delighted in Archery, and defired to be thus reprefented in this View; his greateft random (hot was 
i J53 Englifh Feet. 

The prefent State of Athens, with the manners and language of the Inhabitants, are exactly enough defcribed by Whe- 
ler and Spon. The Athenians have perhaps to this day more vivacity, more genius, and a politer addrefs than any other 
people in the Turkifh Dominions. Oppreffed as they are at prefent, they always oppofe, with great courage and wonder- 
ful fagacity, every addition to their Burden, which an avaricious or cruel Governor may attempt to lay on them. During 
our ftay, they, by their intrigues, drove away three of their Governors, for extortion and mal-adminiftrationj two of whom 
were imprifoned and reduced to the greateft diftrefs. They want not for artful Speakers and bufy Politicians, fo far as relates 
to the Affairs of their own City; and it is remakable enough, that the Coffec-Houfe which this fpecies of Men frequent, ftands 
within the precincts of the ancient Poikile. Some of their Priefts have the reputation of being learned men and excellent 
Preachers; the moft admired of them, in our time, was the Abbot of St. Cyrianie, z Convent on Mount Hymettus; he is a 
Man of great reading, and delivers himfelf with becoming gefture and a pleafing fluency of elocution. Here are two or three 
Perfons who pradtife Painting; but whatever Genius we may be tempted to allow them, they have indeed very little fcience; 
they feem never to have heard of Anatomy, or of the effect of Light and Shade; tho' they ftill retain fome imperfect No- 
tions of Perfpective and of Proportion. The Athenians are great lovers of Mufic, and generally play on an Instrument, which 
they call a Lyra, tho' it is not made like the ancient Lyre, but rather like a Guitar, or Mandola. This, they accompany 
with the Voice, and very frequently with extempore Verfes, which they have a ready faculty at compofing. 

There is great fprightlinefs and expreflion, in the Countenance of both Sexes, and their Perfons are well proportioned. 
The Men have a due mixture of Strength and Agility, without the leaft appearance of heavinefs. The Women have a 
peculiar elegance of Form, and of Manner; they excell in Embroidery and all kinds of Needle- Work. 

The Air of Attica is extremely healthy. The Articles of Commerce which this Country produces, are chiefly Corn, Oil, 
Honey, Wax, Rofin, fome Silk, Cheefe, and a fort of Acorns called Velanede by the Italians and the French; but written 
BccXavUn by the Greeks : thefe Acorns are ufed by the Dyers and Leather-Dreffers. The principal Manufaftures are Soap 
and Leather. Of thefe commodities the Honey, Soap, Cheefe and Leather, and part of the Oil, are fent to Conftantinople ; 
the others are chiefly bought by the French, of which Nation they reckon that feven or eight Ships are freighted here every 
year. 

The Turkifh Governor of Athens is called the Vaiwode. He is either changed, or renewed in his Office every Year the 
beginning of March. The Athenians fay, he brings the Cranes with him, for thefe Birds likewife make their firft Appear- 
ance here about that time, they breed, and when their young have acquired fufficient ftrength, which is fome time in Auguft, 
they all fly away together, and are feen no more till the March following. 

Befides the Vaiwode, there is a Cadie, or chief Man of the Law. His bufinefs is to adminifter juftice, to terminate the dis- 
putes which arife between Man and Man, and to punifh Offenders. There is alfo a Mudeerhfe Effendi, who prefides over 
the religious affairs of the Mohammedans here ; and thofe, who aredefigned to officiate in the Mofcheas, are by him inftrucled 
m the Mohammedan Ritual. The Difddr-Agd is the Governor of the Fortrefs of Athens, which was anciently called the 
Acropolis ; and the Az6p-Aga is an Officer who commands a few Soldiers in that Fortrefs. 

The Inhabitants of Athens are between nine and ten thoufand, about four fifths of whom are Chriftians. This City is an 
Atchiepifcopal See, and the Archbilhop maintains a confiderable authority among the Chriftians; which he ufually ftrengthens 
by keeping on good terms with the Turks in Office. He holds a kind of Tribunal, at which the Chriftians frequently agree 
to decide their differences, without the intervention of the Turkifh Magiftrate. 

We every where meet here with Fragments of ancient Marbles, pieces of ruined Sculptures, and of Architectural 
Ornaments; many have imperfect Infcriptions on them ; and there are fome few, on which the Infcriptions are entire. Six 
of thefe- mutilated Pieces, which have no relation to each other, compofe the Ornament, or Border at the beginning of 
this Preface. The principal one is part of an Infcription, on which were reprefented the Prizes, that had been gained 
i-u various Athletic Games by an Athenian of Rhamnus. The Name of this Champion is loft, but the lfthmian and part of 
the Nemean Crown is remaining, with the Shield, which rewarded the Victor at Argos, and the Jar of Oil, which was 
the Prize in the Panathenean Games. The Ornament at the end of this Preface is copied from a fragment in the Mo- 
naftery of St. Spiridion, at the Pireus. The Infcription on it has been already publifhed by the learned Corfini, from a 
manufcript copy, in which there are two Errors, that with his ufual perfpicacity he has difcovered, and happily cor- 
rected. 








■^Ml 








■^Ml 




CHAPTER I 

Of a Doric Portico at Athens. 



THE Building here treated of is a Doric Portico of four fluted Columns; and is generally fup- 
pofed to be the Remains of a [a] Temple dedicated to Rome and Auguftus. The Columns, 
Entablature, and Pediment,' as alfo one of the [b~] Antae, are all fufficiently entire to give an exacT: 
Idea of its original Form and Proportion. One of the Jambs of the Door-Cafe belonging to this Build- 
ing, ftands in the Wall of a neighbouring Houfe; and there is a long Infcription on that Face of it which 
is next the Street. There are likewife fome Remains of the other Jamb; but they are almoft level with 
the Pavement of the Street, and cannot readily be diftinguifhed from it. This Fragment however, and 
the other more entire Jamb, are both in their original Situations. 

The Front of this Portico lies about 2 8°. ao' Eaft of North and Weft of South by the Magnetic 
Needle, and is exactly on a Line with the Front of that Building, which Wheler and Spon fuppofe to 
be the Temple of Jupiter Olympius. On the Architrave is the following Infcription [e\ 

O AHMOS AnO TUN AOGElEHN AnPEHN TOO TAIOT IOYAIOT KAlEAPOS 0EOT 

KAI ATTOKPATOPOS KAIEAPOS 0EOT TIOT IEBAETOT 
A0HNAI APXHrETJAI ZTPATHrOTNTOS Eni TOYS OnALTAE ETKAEOT2 MAPAGflNIOT 
TOT KAI AIAAEHAMENOT THN EfUMEAElAN TOEP TOT IIATPOE HPHAOT TOT KaI nPEEBETZANTOE 

Eni APXONTOS NIKIOT TOT EAPAninNOS A0MONEa£ 

On that [_d~\ Acroterium which is placed over the Middle of the Pediment, is this Infcription : 

[e] O AHMOE 
AOTKION KAI2APA ATTOKPATOPOS 
GEOT TOT EEBAETOT KAIEAP02 TON 



[a] Sec Wheler, Page 388, and Spon, Tome II. Page 183. There 
can be no doubt, that a Temple at Athens was dedicated to Rome and Au- 
guftus; but it flood in the Acropolis, as appears from the following Infcrip- 
tion publifhed by Gruter. 

OAHMOS ©EAI PX1MHI KAI XEBA^Tn KAIIAPI 
ETPATHTOYNTOS Eni TOYS OIIAITAE IIAMMEN0Y2 TOY EHNfiNOZ MA- 
PAOfWIOY IEPEfiZ ©EAE PfiMHS KAI XEBASTOY ZfiTHPOS EN AKPOnOAEI 
EIII IEPEIAS A0HNAX IIOAIAAOE MEniTHr AlKAEiniAAOY AAAIEfiE ©YrATPOX 
Eni APXONTOX APHOY TOY MfiPIfiNOE nAIANIEfiZ' 

Gruter. p. 105. e Fabricii Roma 

. To the Goddefs Rome, and to Auguflus Cafar, Pammenes the Son of Zeno 
of Marathon, Priefl of the Goddefs Rome and of Augujlus the faviour, in the 
Acropolis, being Commander of the heavy armed foot, at the time that Megifle 
the daughter of Afclepiades the Aliean was Priejlefs of Minerva Polias. In the 
year that Areus the Son of Morion the Paeanian was Archon. 

[b] Antae are a fpecies of Piladers, placed on the Extremity of a Wall : 
they are feldom made to diminish like Columns; nor do they ufually re- 
femble Columns in the Mouldings of their Capitals or Bafes. The Pilafters 
at each Extremity of the Portico of Covent-Garden Church, are properly 
Antae, from their Situation, but they differ from the Athenian Antae ; for 
thefe laft are feldom made to diminish ; and, except in an Example or two 



of the Corinthian Order, they never imitate the Column in the Mouldings 
©f their Capitals and Bafes. 

[c] The People [of Athens'] out of the Donations be/lowed [on them] by Caius 
Julius Cafar the God ; and by the Emperor Augujlus Cafar , the Son of the 
God; [dedicate this"] to Minerva Archegetia [or the chief Conduftrefs.] Euclces 
the Marathonian being Commander of the heavy armed Foot, he likewife Jucceeded 
into the Office of cverfeeing this Work for his Father Herodes : And he had like- 
wife finfhtd his AmbaJJy, [ Or, who aljo received the Charge of overfceing this 
Building for his Father Herodes, who was abfent on an EmbaJJy.] In the year 
that Nicias the Son of Serapion, the Athmonian was Archon. 

[d] Acroteria, a kind of Bafes, which are placed on the Angles of Pedi- 
ments, and ufually fupport Statues, from the Dimcnfions of this Acroterium, 
there is Reafon to believe, that it fupported an Equeflrian Statue, which from 
the Infcription appears to have reprcfented Lucius Caefar. 

[e] The People [of Athens honour] Lucius Cafar, the Son of the Emperor 
Augujlus Cafar, the Son of the God, [with this Statue. ] 

Lucius Caefar was a Son of Marcus Agrippa, and Julia the Daughter of 
Auguftus and Scribonia: he was not only a Grandfon, but likewife by Adop- 
tion a Son of Auguftus : So that this Infcription was made fome time between 
the Adoption and the Death of Lucius Caefar, that is, between the twelfth 
Year before the Birth of Chrift, and the third Year after it. Sec Cardinal 
Noris, in Cenotaphiis Pifanis. 






Near 



Of a Doric Portico at Athens. 



Near the eaflermoft Column of this Portico, there is a quadrangular Bafe; it formerly fupported 
a Statue, which by the Infcription ftill remaining, appears to have reprefented Julia Augufta, in the 
Character of Providence. The words are as follow : 

[a] IOTAIAN 0EAN ZEBA2THN nPONOIAN 

H BOTAH H E£ APEIOT IIAror KAI H BOTAH 
TXiN EHAKOSIX1N KAI O AHMOS 
ANA9ENT02 EK TON IAIHN 
AIONTSIOr TOY ATAOT MAPA 
©IINIGY ArOPANOMOTNTON 
ATTOY TE AIONYSIOY MAPA 
GHNIOY KAl KOINTOY NAlBIOY 
POYOOY MEAITEnS 

The Infcription on the Jamb of the Door-cafe which is mod entire, is an [£] Edkft of the Empe- 
ror Adrian, regulating the Sale of Oils, and the Duties or Cuftoms they were obliged to pay: At pre- 
fent it is much defaced. 

It is evident from the Infcription on the Architrave, which is now firft given entire, that this Building 
was not dedicated to Auguftus, but to Minerva; and on farther examination, there appear ftrong Prefump- 
tions that it was not only, not dedicated to Auguftus, but that it was not a Temple : For the Wall in which 
the Door is placed, extended on each Side beyond the lateral Walls of the Portico; whereas, the ufual Plan 
of Temples is a reaangular Parallelogram, and their lateral Walls are continued without Interruption, from 
the Antae of the Portico, or the Pofticus or Back-front[>]. Befides this, the Diameters of the fe Columns are 
in a fmaller Proportion to their Height, than the Diameters of any that are found in the ancient Temples 
of this Order now extant; which Circumftance, confidering the diftinftion Vitruvius has made between 
the Proportion of thofe Columns which are employed in Temples, and of thofe which are placed in Build- 
ings of inferior Dignity [r/J, adds a confiderable Weight to this Opinion. 

It may Jikewife be remarked, that there is an Appearance of Impropriety, in fuppofing that an EdicT: 
relating to the Sale of Oils, was inferibed on the Gate of a Temple; neither indeed did Wheler and 
Spon, when they conceived this to be a Temple, underfland that the Infcription here mentioned was on 
a Part of the Building itfelf ; they fuppofed that it was removed hither from the Prytaneum, or fome other 
neighbouring Ruin; whereas in Truth it is, as was before obferved, in its original Situation. It fhould 
feem therefore a more reafonable Opinion, and more naturally to be inferred from the Subjedt of this In- 
fcription, 



[>] The Senate of the Areopagus 3 and the Senate of the Six hundred, and the 
People [of Athens by their Decree honour] * Ju'ia the Divine, the /uguft, 
the Provident, [with this Statue] creeled at the Expence of Dionyfus, the Son 
of Aulus the Marathonlan ; the fold Dionyfus the Maratkmlan, and $ulntus 
N annus Rufus, the Melitean, being Prefers of the Market. 
* Literally Julia, Goddtfs, Augujia, Providence. 
We find, both on Medals and on Marbles, that Emprefles and Piinceffes of 
the Imperial Family were frequently dignified, not only with the general Title 
of Goddefs, but likewifc with the Names and Attributes of particular God- 
defles. See the Ornament at the End of this Chapter, in which is lilcevvife 
an exact Copy of the Bafe, here mentioned, and of the Characters which 
compofe the Infcription on it. 

This Portico was adorned with other Statues and Infcriptions. There 
was cert.iinly one erected on each Acroterium; and perhaps others were 
placed within the Portico, on each Side of the Door-Cafe. It feems pro- 
bable that thefe Statues, like thofe already mentioned, were in honor of 
the Auguftan Family. The Athenians had in many Inftances teftified a 
ftrong averfion to the Caufe of Julius Caefar and of Auguftus ; and had 
given that Party almoft continual Subject of Offence. In the war between 
Pompcy and Csefar, the Athenians ever attached to the Caufe of liberty, 
had declared for Pompey and the Republic : when Julius was flain the Athe- 
nians avowed their Approbation of that Aft, they honored Brutus and Caf- 
fius for the Share they had in it, and by a public Decree ere&cd their Sta- 
tues in the Athenian Agora, near thofe of Harmodius and Ariftogiton *, 
whem they had long revered as the Deftroyers of Tyrants, and Deliverers 
of their Country. The Athenians felt fome EfFefts of the Difpleafure of 
Augurtus on this Account, and though he did not treat them with the cru- 
elty of a Sylla, he deprived them neverthelefs of fome confiderable Ad- 
vantages, particularly of their Dominion over iEgina, and Eretria f. But 
this chaftifement did not abate their Animofity againft him, or engage that 



fierce Democracy to follow more temperate Councils ; for in the great final 
Struggle between Auguftus and M. Antonius for the fole Dominion, the 
Athenians fided with the latter. At length, the Victory at Actium efta- 
blifhed Auguftus in the fecure pofleffion of the Empire, and the Athenians 
who had already, to gratify M. Antonius, removed the Statues of Brutus 
and Caffius from their Agora, were now obliged to recommend themfelves, 
by farther Acts of Obfequioufnefs, to the Clemency of Auguftus : in Con- 
fequence of which, we here fee them recording that Emperor and his Pre- 
deceflbr as Benefactors to their Republic ; and it is probable that they likewife 
honored the principal Perfons of his Family, by eroding their Statues in this 
Place, and bellowing on them the moft pompous Titles. Perhaps the Em- 
bafTy of Euclees the Marathonian, mentioned in the firft Infcription, had 
no other Object than to mitigate the refentment of Auguftus, and to reconcile 
the Athenians to its Favour. 

* Dion Caffius, Book 47. f Book 54. 

EOT 
[b] This Infcription begins as follows: K.N.0.AAPIANOT 

01 TO EAAIftN rEIiPrOTNTES, &c. 
See Wheler and Spon, who have both copied it, without difcovering that the 
Stone it is cut on, flands in its original Place, or that it has any Relation to 
this Building. 

j>] This may be underftood by comparing the Plan of this Portico, with the 
Plan of the Ionic Temple in the next Chapter. 

[d] " Columnarum autem Proportions & Symmetrise, non erunt iifdem 
" rationibus, quibus in aedibus facris fcripfi. Aliam enim in Deorum Tem- 
" plis debent habere gravitatem, aliam in porticibus, & caeteris operibus 
" fubtilitatem. Vitruvius, L.5. C. 9. 

" The Proportions of Columns [employed in Porticos] and their Sym- 
" metry, fhall not be in the fame Ratios with thofe I prefcribed for facred 
" Edifices ; becaufe an Appearance of Dignity and Solidity, is requifite to 

"the 






DSI 



Of a Doric Portico at Athens, 3 

fcription [>}, that the Portico here treated of, is the remains of an Agora or Market : The Entrance 
to which, muft be allowed a much properer Place than the Gate of a Temple, for exhibiting to the 
Public a Law which regulated fo important a Branch of Commerce. 

The Infcription likewife on the Bafe, which formerly fupported the Statue of Julia Augufta, furnifhes 
an Argument in Favor of this Opinion; for why elfe fhould the names of two Perfons be mentioned in 
it, as Prefers of the Market, when only one was at the Expence of the Statue? The Donor might in- 
deed juftly claim this Privilege, wherever it was ere&ed; but the other Prefect cannot be fuppofed by 
any Right to enjoy this Honor, unlefs the Building before us had fome Relation to his Office. 

It may be proper to obferve, that there were two Agoras in Athens, one called the Old Agora, and 
the other the New; the firft of them feems to have been in the Ceramicus within the Walls, near 
the Dipylon; and the other, which is probably that under our prefent Gonfideration, was in a Part of 
the City, called Eretria; they were ornamented with Monuments of the moft celebrated A&ions [6] of 
the Athenians, and with Statues of thofe Perfons who had deferved well of the Republic. 



PLATE 



I. 



A View of the Portico in its prefent State, Through the middle Intercolumniation is ken the Minaret 
or Steeple of the principal Mofchea. It is called by the Turks the Jawm, or Jawmy, which anfwers to 
our Cathedral Church; to thefe there always belongs a School or College, where thofe who defign to of- 
ficiate in the Mofcheas, are inftru&ed in the Mohammedan Ritual, by certain Profeffors who are held in 
high Efteem among the Turks, and are CAYL^Mudereefes, or LeQurers. On the Right Hand is the Church 
called tou hagiou Soteros, or St. Saviour's, which is now deferted and in a ruinous Condition, The Turkifh 
Government makes a great Difficulty of permitting any Church to be repaired, and the Greeks are gene- 
rally obliged to pay very dear for fuch Permiflion whenever it is granted. On the Left Hand, in the Wall 
of the Houfe contiguous to the Portico, and partly in the Light Space, over the Crupper of the more 
diftant Horfe's Saddle, is that Jamb of the Door-cafe, on which is inferibed the Edia of Adrian re- 
lating to the Sale of Oils. The Gate out of which a Greek Servant is coming with a Fufil in his Hand, 
belongs to the Houfe in which Monfieur Etienne Leoufon the French Conful lives ; who is here intro- 
duced fitting between two Gentlemen, one a Turk, and the other a Greek, for the Sake of exhibiting 
the different Habits of this Country. The Fountain, on the Fore-Ground of the View, was rebuilt at 
the Expence of the French Conful, and on it are inferibed E L. the initial Letters of his Name, with 
the Date of the Year in which it was finifhed : And although Characters of Perfons are by no Means 
the Subjea of this Book, yet to pafs in Silence the difmterefled Hofpitality with which this Gentle- 
man receives all Strangers, would argue a Want of Senfibility : He is indeed an uncommon Inftance of 
modeft Virlue, and univerfal Benevolence, without Wcaknefs or Often tation. 

To erecSt or repair a public Fountain, is efteemed by the Turks a Work of great Merit; and as the 
prefent Volume affords no other Occafion of reprefenting one, the Liberty has been taken of turning 
this Fountain fomewhat from its real Pofition, fo as to give the Reader a View of this Kind of Turkifh 
Fabrick: It ftands however exa&ly on the Spot here affigned it, and its Form is faithfully reprefented. 
The Figures by it are a common Turk, and an ordinary Servant Maid. 



" the Temples of the Gods, but a lefs maffive Species of Building, is proper 
" for Porticos and other Works of that Kind." 

[a] This Infcription which we have fo often mentioned, is a Law relating to 
the Duties which were impofed on fuch Oils and Olives as were the Produce 
of Attica : We learn from the Remains of it, what Proportion of this Produce 
was to be depofited at a certain public Office in Athens, &c. — Entries were 
likewife hereby ordered to be made at the proper Office, not only of the entire 
Quantities produced on the Lands of erery Perfon who cultivated Olives, but 
likewife of the Quantities each of them fold, &c. — If this produce was fold for 
Exportation, an Entry was required, felting forth the Price it fold for, the 
Buyer's Name, and the Name of the Place or Places to which the Veffel 
freighted with it was bound, &c— The Penalties, likewife which were 



incurred by thofe who neglected to make the above-mentioned Entries, and 
by thofe who made them falfely or fraudulently, were herein fpecified ; and 
the whole feems to conclude with a Detail of the Manner of profecuting the 
Offenders againft this Law. 

[£] 'Airdvrujy yd$ vp'v twv xaXwv tpyuiv rat iirop,vf l ita,ra. iv r» ayoox avaxstrou. 
Efchines, in bis Oration again/I Cte/iphon, " the Monuments of all your 
M great Atchievements are placed in the Agora." 

In this Place, befides the Statues of Harmodius and Ariftogiton, and of 
Brutus and Caflius which have been already mentioned, there were alio thofe 
of Solon, of Conon, of Timotheus, of Demofthenes, with many others. 
It would be tedious to cite all the Authors who mention them. 



B 



PLATE 



4 



Of a Doric Portico at Athens. 






PLATE II. 

Fig. i. The Plan of this Portico. A, the remaining Jamb of the Door-cafe, on which is infcribed 
the Law of Adrian. B, B, the tranfverfe Wall, in which the Door is placed, continued on each Side, 
and extending beyond the lateral Walls of the Portico, contrary to the Manner of Temples. C, C, the 
lateral Walls of the Portico. D, D, the Antae. 

Fig. 2. The Profile of the Capital of the Columns of this Portico on a larger Scale. 

PLATE III. 

The front Elevation of the Doric Portico. The Acroterium which is over the Middle of the Pedi- 
ment, probably fupported a Statue of Lucius Caefar. 

PLATE IV. 

The lateral Elevation of the Doric Portico. A, one of the Antae. 

P L A T E V. 

The Capital and Entablature. A, the Soffit of the Entablature. 

PLATE VI. 

Fig. i. The Capital of the Antae, with a Section of the Entablature. 

Fig. 2. A Section of the Capital of the Antae. 

Fig. 3. A Section of the Cornice over the Pediment in which the Mutules are omitted. 

The Ornament, at the beginning of this Chapter, is, with many other curious Marbles, inferted in the 
Wall of the Catholicon, or Metropolitan Church of Athens : It has no other Connection with this Chap- 
ter, than that it is the Frize of a Doric Building; which from this Fragment appears to have been highly 
finilhed, and richly ornamented; but of which no other Remains could be found. The Manner of 
decorating the Triglyphs is Angular and beautiful. 

The Ornament at the End of this Chapter is compofed of various Pieces, which are here brought to- 
gether, as they feem in fome Mcafure, to illuftrate that Part of the Subject which relates to the Statue of 
fulia Augufta; and fince it may be fuppofed that this Portico was the Entrance to a Market where Corn 
and Oil were fold, what is here added from Fancy, has fome Reference to that Idea, and thefe different 
Pieces are therefore connected together, fo as to form one Object, by Means of a Garland compofed of 
Wheat-Ears, and Olive Branches. In the Middle of it is an exa£l Copy of the Bafe, and the Infcrip- 
tion on ir, which honors Julia Augufta with the Title of Providence; and as it probably fupported a 
Statue of her in the Character of that Divinity, the reverfes of four Roman Medals with different Fi- 
gures of Providence on them, are here exhibited, becaufe they may poffibly convey fome Idea, both of 
the Senfe in which the Title of Providence was beftowed on that Princefs, and likewife of thofe parti- 
cular Characlei iftics which diftinguifhed the Figure in which fhe was here reprefented. Of thefe Me- 
dals, the two upper moft feem to exprefs the Providence which governs the World, for the Figures on each 
of them have a Scepter and a Globe, which are certainly the Symbols of Empire and Dominion. The 
two lowermoft Medals were coined, one by Alexander Severus, and the other by Florianus. The Figure 
on the firft of thefe, feems intended to exprefs the Providence which feeds the World, and might be 
miftaken for a Ceres, were it not for the Legend round it; as there exift feveral Statues of Empreffes, 
which very much refemble the Figure on this Medal, may it not be fufpe&ed that Julia was here re- 
prefented in the fame Manner? Efpecially if this Portico was really the Entrance to a Market. The 

Figure, 



Of a Doric Portico at Athens. \ $ 

Figure on the Medal of Florianus, is diftinguiflied with all the Attributes of thofe already defcribed, and 
feems aptly enough to exprete that Providence which both feeds and governs the World. 

The two Heads, reprefented in this ornament, are the Portraits of Livia the Wife of Auguftus, and 
of Julia his Daughter, by Scribonia; the Legend round the Head of Livia is AIBIAN HPAN, or Livia 
Juno; and that round the Head of Julia, is IOTAIAN A4>POAlTHN, or Julia Venus. They are both 
on the fame Medal, the original of which is in that noble Collection belonging to his Grace the Duke 
of Devonfhire ; and has been formerly published by Haym, in his Teforo Britannico. 

Monficur Le Roy, in his Book, entitled, Let Ruines des plus beaux Monuments de la Crete, (ft. has given two Plates which relate to the Antiquity before us ; 
the firft of them is accompanied with an hiftorical Account of the Building and the fecond, with an .architectonic DilTertation concerning the Peculiarities 
which he obferved in it. It may not be improper, to clofe the prefent Chapter with fome Remarks on thefc Plates and Differtations. 

In his hiftorical Account, page 32, Monf. Le Roy calls this Building [a] the Temple of Aujuftus j a Miftake which he fcems to have fallen into by fol- 
lowing too implicitly the Opinions of Wheler and Spon : Who were indeed Gentlemen of great Diligence, Learning, and Veracity. But the fbort Stay they 
made at Athens did not permit them to be in every Refpe<St. accurate, and their want of Skill in Architecture occafioned them to make frequent Errors 
concerning the Remains of ancient Edifices. 

He fuppofes upon the Authority of the fame Authors, as it fhould feem, that the Infcription on the Architrave of the Portico is not entire ; but he might 
have di ("covered, when he was at Athens, that in this particular, they were miftaken. He fliould at leaft have copied fo much of the original Infcription as he 
could fee, in the State he faw it ; inftead of which, he has only copied from [£J Wheler and Spon a very imperfect., and indeed falfe Account of its Contents : and 
as thefe Authors had not feen the firft Line of this Infcription, he alfo takes no Notice of it ; and confequently, he omits the curious Point of Hiftory which 
is recorded on this Architrave, that Donations were beftowed on the Athenians by Julius Casfar, and by Auguftus. See Page 1, Note [ c J 9/ this Chapter. 

Befides he evidently fuppofes, that the Words AGHNAI APXHrETlAI [<•] fignify the NobUft, or Body of the Athenian Nobility, who dedicate this Build- 
ing to Auguftus ; when the Athenian Government being a pure Democracy, no fuch Body of Men cxifted ; and when the Words he thus interprets, arc 
inconteftably a Dedication to Minerva the chief Conduftrefs or Patronefs, exprefly made by the People of Athens. 

He informs us farther, that Auguftus is here honoured with the Title of a God, which is likewife a Miftake ; and what is of more Importance (if thefe 
Matters are at all of Importance) he has entirely omitted to mention the Law of Adrian, although the Stone on which it is inferibed is Part of this Building, 
and ftiir remains in its original Situation. 

The Plate which accompanies his hiftorical Account is a perfpe&ive View of the Portico. Here Monf. Le Roy has not only forgot to tell his Readers that 
it is reverfed; but from his Manner of Expreffion they may conclude, that it is not reverfed, and that the French Confuls houfc is really on the right Hand, 
and the Houfe on the other Side of the Paflage is on the Left, as he has reprefented them. It was neceflary to mentioti this trifling Circumftance, becaufe 
our View of the Portico differs in this Particular from the View which Monf. Le Roy has given of it ; and they who compare them, might without this Notice, 
be unable to difcover where the Error lies. 

Though after all, this Error, had it been acknowledged, might be reckoned a light one, as it probably proceeded from the Inattention of the Engraver } in 
Juftice to whofe Merit, it muft however be faid, that he has acquitted hi mfclf extremely well in this Work ; all the Views in it, though apparently made from 
very flight Sketches, are, fo far as the Engraver is concerned, treated with Elegance and touched with Spirit. 

But if we confider the View before us, as the Reprefentation of a Place really exifting, we (hall find that it is extremely inaccurate and licentious ; as will in 
fome fort be obvious to thofe who compare the two Books, when they are informed that the little Door, which in our View of it appears between the Head of 
the more diftant Horfe, and the Perfon who is about to mount him, is the Gate which Monf. Le Roy has placed in the Middle of his View ; and by the 
Narrownefs of the Paflage to which that Door gives Admiflion (from which Paflage [ d ], he informs us, he took his ViewJ a very moderate Skill in Optica 
will fuffice to fhew that he muft have been placed too near the Plane in which the Columns ftand, to fee them in the Manner he has chofen to rcprefent 
them. Nor is this all ; for if we except the Portico itfelf, and the little Ionic Column in the Porch of Hagios Softer, there is not one Object in his View, that 
can be faid to refemble its Original j fince there are really no Trees in this Place, and the Forms of all the Buildings which he has made to accompany the 
Portico, are quite Ideal. 

But as Accuracy is not univerfally thought to be necelTary in this Kind of Pi&orefque Reprefentation, we (hall wave any farther Remarks on this Plate. 

It will however be proper to examine Plate XIV of his fecond Part fomewhat more minutely ; for here he treats of this Building in the Capacity of an Ar- 
chitect, and here the Public has a right to fee the whole of thefe Remains, and to fee them meafured with Exadtnefs; any Omiflion or Inaccuracy in this Part 
is cenfurabl«, as it fruftrates the chief End which Books of this Sort propofc to anfwer. Accuracy is the principal and almoft the only Merit they can have. 
What Share of this may be expected in Monf. Le Roy's Performance, will appear from the following Lift, which contains fome of the Omiflions and Errors 
in his Plate XIV. 

(1) He has omitted the Plan of the Portico. (2] He takes no notice of the Antse belonging to it, (3) nor of the Architrave within the Portico, (4 J "°r 
of the Door-Cafe. (5) He has omitted the lateral Acroteria; (6) He has omitted theMeafureof the Step on which the Columns are placed ; (7) and he has 
made three Steps of what is only one in the Original j from thefe two laft Articles it fhould feem, that be had no Opportunity of indulging his Curiofity fo far, 



[a] * Je vais parler de ceux qui furent elev6s par les Empereurs Romains, ott 
« en leur Honneur. Entre ceux-ci le plus ancien qui foit a Athenes, eft le Tem- 
« pie d'Augufte. II etoit Proftyle ou Amphiproftyle ; mais on ne peut decider 

• precifement laquelle de ce deux formes il avoit: fa facade, qui fubfifte encore, 

• eft compofee comme on le voit de quatre Colonnes Doriques qui foutient une 

• Entablement, fur f Architrave du quel on lit une grande Infcription Greque qui 
' nous apprend qutlfut didii a cet Emptreur par la Nobltjpi ttAtbemt. Sous PJrcbon- 

• tat de Nuias fils dt Strapion. Cette Infcription n'eft pas cntiere ; M. M. Spon & 

■ Wheler penfent que ce qui y manque eft la Dedicace a la Ville meme de Rome. 
« Ce qu'on lit fur la frife du Temple de Pola, &c. confirment ce fentiment.' 
Monf. Le Roy. Part I. Page 32. 

[b] * My Companion hath obferved, that the firft Line is wanting, I have 

■ only noted the firft Word ; which I fuppofe by other Infcription! was the Dcdi- 



* cation to Rome, as that which remains is to Auguftus ; which the Athenian 

* Nobility did, in the Time that Nicias was Archon: Wheltr, Page 388. 

[ c ] In the Original this Word is written APXHrETlAI, as both Wheler and 
Spon have given it, and not APXHrETlAI. It is an Epithet beftowed on Minerva, 
and whether me be called Archigetis or Archegetia, the meaning muft be the 
iame. The whole of this Matter is perhaps nothing more, than a Miftake of 
the Artift who cut the Infcription ; he has prohably made an A inftead of a A for 
the laft Letter but one of this Word. 

[d] ■ Pour le deffiner dans cet afpeft, je fuis entre dans une ruelle qui fepare 

• la maifon du Conful de France, que Ton volt a gauche, d'avec une autre, que 
■ eft fur ladroite. Laporte, vue de face, eft celle par ou Ton entr* de la rue 

• dans ce paflage, 8cc. Monf. U Ry, Part 1. Page 3a. 

C " 



Of a Doric Portico at Athens. 






sk to examine any Thing beneath the prefent Surface of the Ground. (8) He has marked 1 1 Flutings on each of his Columns, when in the Delineation of them 
which he has given, hefhould have marked but 9. For in the whole Circumference of each Column there are no more than 20 Flutings. (9) He has made 
the lower Diameters of his Column more than 3^- Inches too fmall. (10) and their upper Diameters, more than ij. of an Inch too fmall. (u) He has omitted 
the Cymbia or Fillet at the Top of the Shaft, although it is a very effential Part of a Column ; (12) and he has mifreprefented the Profiles of the Annulets of the 
Capital, by making them Curves inftead of right Lines. (1 3) The Projection of his Taenia, or Fillet on the Top of the Architrave, is twice as great as in the 
Original. (14) He has placed feven Drops under one of the Triglyphs, when there are no more than fix in the Original j (15) he has omitted to give the 
Diameters of the Drops, (16) and he has ftrangely mifreprefented the Form of all the Drops. He might indeed eafily have miflaken them for Cylinder?, but 
not for Cones of fo (hort an Axis. (17) The Space between the Top of the Channels of the Triglyph and its Capital, is thrice as great as in the Original ; 
(.18) and he has given no Projection to its Capital. (19) The Cyma Reverfa, or Ogee, which is immediately under the Frize, is twice as high, (20) and 
its Projection is near twice as great as in the Original. (21) He has made the Fillet over the Ogee range with the lower Line of the Mutules, 
when it fhould range with the Bottom of the exterior Drops of the Mutules ; (22) and he has omitted the Fillets between the Mutules. (23) He has 
not given the Soffit of the Entablature. (24) He has omitted ihe Cymatium of the Cornice in Fig. 2. (25) and both in Figure 1 and Figure 2, he has 
omitted the Lyon's Heads which adorn the Cymatium. (26) He has omitted to give a particular Representation of the Cornice of the Pediment, although it 
differs from the Cornice of the Entablature, both for the Form and Proportion of its Mouldings. (27) The uncommon Moulding over the Corona of the 
Cornice, which Monf. Le Roy calls /* Beudin, is in the Original continued likewife over the Corona of the Pediment, but he has omitted it in that Place. 
(28) He has alfo omitted the Cyma Reverfa under the faid Corona ; the two laft mentioned Mouldings are confiderable Parts of the Cornice of the Pediment, 
and Monf. Le Roy by omitting them, has greatly impoveriflied that Cornice. (29) He has made the Fillet under the Cymatium of the Pediment terminate 
againft the Boudin of the Cornice, when it fhould project beyond it, and be profiled with the other Mouldings of the Cornice. (30) He has made the Cyma- 
tium of the Pediment with the upper billet, meafure feven Inches and two Lines of the Paris Foot, which is more than feven Inches and a' half of the London 
Foot ; when the faid Cymatium with the Fillet above it, and the other Fillet below it, meafure no more than five Inches and a half: fo that if an Inch be 
fubftracted for the lower Fillet. His Meafure of feven Inches and a half is then three Inches too great. 

It would be tedious to infift on the many other Omiffions and Miftakes that occur in this Plate XIV ; thofe already enumerated have led our Author into a 
Variety of falfe Conclufions: for Inftance, having made the Diameter too fmall, he meafures the Height of the Column with it, and from thence concludes, that 
the Column is near 7 Diameters high, when it is exactly fix [a]. From this Error in taking the Diameters, he alfo neceflarily makes the Diminution of 
the Column more than two Inches too fmall. [b] he. 

But as Monf. Le Roy's Animadverfions and Reafonings on this Building, are deduced from fuch miftaken Facts, it would be fuperfluous to canvas any 
iriore of the Notions he has advanced concerning it. 



-' [a] La Colonne Dorique du Temple d'Augufte a prefque fept Diametres de hauteur.' 

■* [ b ] Elle ne diminue pas autant que celle de Temples que nous avons donne precedement. , Monf. U fyj, Part 2. Pay 13. 













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CHAPTER II. 

(y /^ /o»/V Temple on the IliJJus. 



ON the Southern Bank of the Iliflus, not far from the Fountain Enncacmnos, which at prefent 
has recovered its more ancient Name, and is called [ a ] Callirrhoe, Hands a little Ionic Tem- 
ple, the Mouldings of which differ much from all the Examples of that Order, hitherto pub - 
lifhed; their Forms are extremely Ample, but withal fo elegant, and the whole is fo well executed, that 
it may doubtlefs be reckoned among thofe Works of Antiquity which beft deferve our Attention. 

It Ihould be obferved, that moft of the ancient Structures in Athens, of which there are any Remains, 
were entirely built of an excellent white Marble, [<£] on which the Weather has very little Effect; whatever 
Part therefore of thefe Antiquities, has not been impaired by Violence, is by no means in that moul- 
dering State of Decay, to which the diflblvent Quality of the Air, reduces the ordinary Buildings of 
common Stone : from which Caufe it is, that, notwithstanding great Part of this Temple has long 
fince been thrown down, and deftroyed, whatever remains of it is ftill in good Prefervation. The 
Athenians, probably feveral Centuries ago, repaired this Building; and with fome barbarous Additions, 
transformed it into a Church, dedicated to the Mother of Chrift; and called from its Situation, e Pa- 
nagia eis ten Petran> or St. Mary's on the Rock : which Name it ftill retains, although the Repairs 
which were then beftowed on it, are now alfo gone to Decay, and the Church is at prefent totally de- 
ferted. Spon fuppofes, that it was anciently dedicated to Ceres, and appropriated to the Cele- 
bration of the Leffer Myfteries. It were to be wiftied that he had produced the Authorities on 
which his Opinion is founded ; it had then perhaps never been controverted, or at leaft he would have 
enabled his Readers to determine with more Eafe and greater Accuracy, how far they could concur with 
him in his Sentiments on this Subject [c]. 



[ a ] K«i tn *%*>**), tjj tvt pit, rut rv^dttun ovrv <rxiva.<rdiru*, Emax^uiw r«X»jm./»»i, to 
it vsaXon, (pctnfii tvi crvySt Wu» } KaXX^ay mopokvpixy. ThucydideS Book 2. Sec. I 5. 

1 Near it is alfo the Fountain called Enneakrounos or nine Pipes, from the 
c Manner in which it was embelliflied by the Tyrants (the Family of Pififtra- 
« tus); but formerly when all the Springs were vifible,it was named Callij^ioe.* 

[h] This Marble is, in all Probability, brought from Mount Pentelicus, 
which was anciently famous for its Quarries ; they are at prefent totally neg- 
lected, becaufe the Ruins of the ancient Structures, ftill furnifh fufficient Ma- 
terials for all the Buildings of the modern Athenians. The Marble thefe 
Quarries afford, is not at all inferior to that of Carrara for Whitenefs, Hard- 
nefs, and the Finenefs of its Grain : prodigious Quantities of it have been 
cut here, as i at from the vaft Caverns and Precipices in this Moun- 

tain, which have been evidently formed by the Labour of Men, the Marks 
of the Tool being ftill vifible on them. 

[ e J The following Citations refer to the Temple of Ceres Agrotera, and 
there fcem to be none which furnifh a better Support for Monf.Spon's Opinion. 

"ArPAi. Xn>$m 'ArUfe \b ** •&** tip ti^x. Hcjycb'm on the IVori 



' Agra;, a Place in Attica without the City. A Temple of Ceres ' 
"ArPA. Ar./xiiT^xi *'{<>», *£tf T?k wo*i«« W£c« t£ 'IXotw. Suidat> on the H'ord'Ay^** 
« Agra, a Temple of Ceres out of the City near the Iliflus.' 

"ArPA k, "ArPAI, &C. «V» *} J& ™« 'AtUS< tr^ Tflt *&**, u J [fc. y»fa] t» /U- 
xfi finr^ot i*-»T*?,!»T*», Stepbanus Byzantinus on the IVord "Ayp- 

< Agra and Agra;, &c. There is likewife an Agra in Attica, near the 
' City, in which Place the lefler myfteries are performed.' 

*AirJ ;^«< *frrZ 'I*k<™, i x*wr»c "Ay ? «, % 'Ay^au, I t* f*>H* r* A 

vyiTo^^»a, ahiyikra i/Ayja»?. EujUchius in his Notes on the ft and Iliad. 

— " from a place near the Iliflus, which is called Agra & Agrar, where 
« the lefler myfteries of Ceres are performed, they are called, the Rites in 
« Agra;.' 

But although thefe PafTages prove that the Temple of Ceres Agrotera 
was fituatcd near the City of Athens, and the Banks of the Iliflus, they do 
by no means prove it fo near the Fountain Callirrhoe, or that it was on the 
Spot where the Church of the Panagia eis ten Petran ftands. 






D 



Tin 



s 



Of the Ionic Temple on the Ilijfus. 



The Spot on which it is built, commands a very beautiful and extenfive ProfpecT:; and in the Neigh- 
bourhood are ftill vifible the Ruins and Foundations of many Edifices, which formerly improved this 
pleafing Situation, and adorned the Banks of the Iliffus. Among thefe were the Lyceum, the Stadium 
The Altar of the Mufes IlifTiades, the Monument of Nifus, and the Temple of Diana Altera- all 
which [a] Paufanias has enumerated: and of this Number likewife was the Temple of Boreas, men- 
tioned by Herodotus [£]. But it is evident from many Circumftances, that none of them can be the 
Temple here defcribed : Thefe Circumftances however do not affecl: the Conjedure of Monf. Spon, which 
{o far deferves credit, as it is certain, that the Temple dedicated to Ceres Agrotera, was near the City, 
and on the South Side of the Iliffus. 

It Ihould not however be omitted, that there was a Temple, a Statue, and a Fountain, which were 
dedicated to an Athenian Hero, named [c ] Panops, and they were all of them, probably, near this 
Place ; fince by a Paffage in Plato [d] the Fountain appears to have been juft without that Gate of A- 
thens, which was neareft to the Lyceum and the Iliffus. So fmall a Temple as this we have treated of, 
feems not to correfpond with the high Veneration in which the Goddefs Ceres was held at Athens ; and 
it could by no Means be fufiicient, for the Reception of that Train and Pomp, which doubtlefs accom- 
panied the Celebration even of the leffer Myfteries. It mtiy therefore rather be imagined, that the Hero 
Panops was honoured in this Temple. 

P L A T E I. 

A View of the Southward Side of this Temple in its prefent Condition. The diftant Mountain 
on the right Hand is Pentelicus, under which appears the Convent of [*] Hagios Afomatos, and the 
Olive Grove which encompaffes it. Nearer is the Iliffus, and the Bridge over it, leading to the Stadium 
Panathenaicum. The mod diftant Mountain on the left Hand is Parnes, now called Chajhaw and [/] 
Nochea. The nearer Hills are probably Part of Mount Brileffus, the general Name for them at prefent 
is TurcoBowia\ among thefe is a Rock fplit into two unequal Parts, which is called Shift q Petra. The 
diftant Building on the left Hand is a Church dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and called e Solera Ly- 
codemou. 



[ a ] Paufanias having vifited and defcribed the Temple of Jupiter Olym- 
pics, pates, by the Delphinium to the Place called Kepoi, or the Gardens, 
and from thence returns again to Athens, by the Cynof'arges, and the Tem- 
ple of Diana Agrotera; where he feems to have crofled the HilTus, and to have 
followed its Courfe, defcending on its Southern Bank till he arrived at the 
Stadium ; with a Defcription of which magnificent Structure, he terminates 
the Chapter. In the Account Paufanias gives of this little Excurfion, and of 
thofe Obje&s, on his Way, which principally excited his Attention, he 
takes particular Notice of thofc Buildings which were on the Banks of the 
HilTus. But as he feems to have returned Home diredtly from the Stadium, 
without proceeding on to the Fountain Callirrhoe, and the little Ionic Tem- 
ple here treated of, both which are about one third of a Mile lower down the 
IlifTus, he cannot therefore be fuppofed to have defcribed either of them in 
that Chapter. See Paufanias, Book i. Chap. 19. 

[ b ] O* i" 1 u* 'AOrjyeMo! trQt >.iyovo-i $or&icxrrx to* Bof?» <iP^irt^o», t£ toti Ixuva xxrtp- 
yxcrxaQxi. *x\ i%lt ocKt^onrtq Bo^'w ityvaxtTo <arx£x ivoTxpl' 'IXi«rcro'». Herodotus. Poly- 

hymnia. Seti. 189. « But the Athenians fay, that both this and the former 
* Aid they received, were from Boreas j and therefore, at their Return, they 
■ built him a Temple upon the River Iliffus.' But this Temple, which 
Plato indeed calls an Altar, was three Stadia lower down the River, than 
the Fountain Callirrhoe. See Plato's Pbadrus. 

[c] n«4, ^Wf'ArWf. "£r» $ avTax) ft*i >£ uyxtyx >£ xppr,. HefychittS OH 

the word Panops. 

« Panops, an Attic Hero. He has a Temple, and Statue, and Fountain, 
* dedicated to him.' 

£ d ] *E9ro§tuo/xi)» jut* J| 'Ax*ii>//ui{ tvtov Avxt'ut T V i& T«i%ot>«, •*•** i , tym r vi)t xxrx tjj» 
•fA»eV, ji i> nd»oir&' xfw, liTxvbx avtirv)(o» 'Ijnrofia'^tt. Platos Lyfias. 

* I was going out of the Academy, dire&Iy to the Lyceum, by the Way 
« which lies out of the City-Walls but when I got to the Gate, where 



1 the Fountain of Panops is, I there met with Hippothales.' 

There are ftill fome Foundations of a Gate near the Iliflus, the Situation 
of which does, in all Appearance, exadly anfwer to that of the Gate her« 
mentioned, and near them were two Springs of Water, one of which is the 
Fountain Callirrhoe (o often mentioned here ; and the other was perhaps the 
Fountain of Panops : this latter has been dried up by a Drain which the 
Turks cut in the Year 1 753. The following Paffages in Strabo do apparent- 
ly relate to thefe Springs. 

E»Vi /*£» h xl toyiyx) x«6a§2 xj imr'/MV vixT& w? 6) xo\t, Ikto? tw» Aw^a'fot/f xa\»uisut 
*rv\Zv, «*n<ri» ru Avkim' wgOTsgo* ii k, x^m xxrxaxiCxro t«? vx\i>ffio, «roM« k, kx*S Sicily. 
Strabo, p. 608. and again p. 613 and 614. 'Er> it tmSt©- ^Aw 5 W»U \ K 
3»Ti'gB pip* t« «Y«®- $» u'« t* avrit *rx$xXlc», fc *S» |«jfc rfc "Ay^xi ^ <r* Am4 w ft 
k, Trtitsnyh r>* uprnxtv i> tpx'tyu, nXxruv Strabo, book 9. 

« There are however Springs without the Gate of Diochares, which 
« they fay, are of pure and potable water, and formerly a Fountain was 

* built near it, abounding with good Water,' &c. 

* Of the fame Sort, (that is, a Torrent which is dry in the Summer 
« Time) is the HilTus running by the other Side of the City to the fame 

* Sea Coaft; from the Country above Agra and the Lyceum, and the 

* Springs which Plato has celebrated in his Dialogue called Phaedrus ' 
&c. 

['] Hagios Afomatos fignifies the Saint without a Body or the incorporeal 
Saint. A Title it feems, which the Greeks have given to St. Michael the 
Archangel. Near this Convent is the Place called at prefent Kepoi, or the 
Gardens, and Amptlos Kepos, or the Vineyard Garden j thefe were proba- 
bly the Gardens which Paufanias vifited, [See the Note a.] and which in his 
Time, were famous for a Statue of Venus the Work of Alcamenes. 

[/] Or, as the Greeks now fpell it, wut* f this is perhaps a Corrupti- 
on of «MM«Mf, which was the Name of an Attic Demo*. 



The 



on 



Of the Ionic Temple on the Ilijfus. 

The Figures reprefent the Vaiwode, orTurkuh Governor of Athens, with fome of his Attendants 
a hunting Party. 

P L A T E II. 

A Plan of this Temple, which is Amphiproftylos, or with a Portico at each End. A, the Portico- 
B, the Pronaos or Veftibule; C, the Naos or Cell of the Temple; D, the Pofticus or Back-front- Ee! 
the Antae of the Portico; FF, the Ant* of the Pofticus. Note, the Columns GG, are wanting, 'but in 
the Place where they flood, Circles are marked on the Pavement, which are exactly of the fame Diame- 
ters with the remaining Columns, and were evidently defigned as an accurate Guide to the Workmen, 
when they erected thofe Columns which are now deftroyed : for which Reafon it was thought neceflary to 
mark thefe Circles likewife on the Plan which is here given. The Capitals of the Ant* belonging to the 
Pofticus or Back-front, remain entire, and are of the fame Form and Dimenfion with thofe of the Portico, 
except only, that the Sides contiguous to the Back-wall of the Cell, are but half fo broad as the Faces 
next the Columns: whereas, in the Antae of the Portico, the Sides next the Pronaos, and the Faces next 
the Columns are equal. The Architraves of the Back-front project confiderably beyond the Antje, and 
there are fufficient Remains of them, to fhew exaQly, how far the Columns of the' Back-front were di- 
ftant from the Back-wall of the Cell. 

PLATE III. 

The Elevation of the Portico. Note, the Cymatium is deftroyed in the original Building, and the 
two Columns marked G, G, in the Plan are wanting; the Frize likewife which is here reprefented plain, 
has moft probably been ornamented with Baflb Relievos. See Plate VI. 

PLATE IV. 

The South Side of the Temple. A, the Capital of one of the Ants of the Pofticus. 

PLATE V. 

The Section of the Temple, Lengthways. A, the Portico; B, the Pronaos, or Veftibule; C, the 
Noas or Cell of the Temple; D, the Pofticus; E, the Antae of the Portico; F, the Antae of the 
Pofticus; G, the Remains of that Range of Stones which formed the Frize of the Entablature, H 
the Remains of that Range of Stones which formed the Cornice of the Entablature on the outfide of 
this Temple. 

PLATE VI. 

Fig. i. The Capital and Bafe of the Columns, together with the Entablature. Note, the Cymatium 
of the Cornice is deftroyed, as are likewife the Ornaments of the Frize, which was compofed of Slabs 
about an Inch and a half thick. Thefe were probably decorated with Sculpture, and added after the 
Temple was built. The dotted Line A, A, denotes the prefent Surface of the Frize, and the Figures 
here reprefented on it are copied from a Fragment found at Athens, which may poflibly have belonged 
to this Place, fince its Height and Thicknefs is fuch as exactly fupplies the Space defigned for this Or- 
nament. 

Fig. 2. A Secftion of one Quarter of the Column, to (hew the Number and Proportion of the 
Flutings. 

Fig. 3. The Manner of forming the Flutings." 






PLATE VII. 

The Plan, Profile, and Section of an Angular Capital belonging to this Ionic Temple. 



Fig. 



IO 



Of the Ionic Temple on the Ilijfus. 



Fig. i. The Plan of the Capital; in which it is obfervable, that the Ornament called Echinus (or 
Eggs and Anchors) is, contrary to the prefent Cuftom, continued under the Volutes, and quite round 
the Capital. 

Fig. 2. The Profile of the Capital. The Junction of the two Semi- Volutes at A, A, will be given at 
the End of this Chapter. This Part of an angular Ionic Capital, has not perhaps been publifhed before. 

Fig. 3. A Section through the Front of the Capital. 
Fig. 4. A Section through the Side of the Capital, 
Fig. 5. The Form and Dimenfions of the Volute. 

PLATE VIII. 

The Capital and Bafe of one of the Antae; with the different Architraves which are employed in 
this Building. This Capital and Bafe are both continued quite round the outride of this Building; but 
in the Pronaos or Veftihule, the Bafe only is continued. 

Fig. 1. A, the Architrave within the Portico. 

Fig. 2. The Architrave to the Pronaos. A, the upper Fafcia of this Architrave, enriched with a 
painted Ornament, which appears to be as ancient as the Building itfelf. 

Fig. 3. The Form of the ancient Ornament which is painted on the upper Fafcia of the Architrave 
of the Pronaos. 

Fij. 4. The Architrave to the Poftius. 

The Ornament at the Beginning of this Chapter, is Part of a Mofaic Pavement. Several Remains 
of thefe Pavements, are yet to be feen at Athens; this is however copied from one of the moft elegant 
and heft preferved, though it flands in the open Air, without any Building to protect it from the Injuries 
of the Weather: There are likewife three or four different Fragments of thefe Pavements, in the unin- 
habited Spuce which lies between the Temple of Thefeus, and the Dipylon; and there is another, in a 
Church dedicated to St. Peter crucified, or as the Greeks call it, tou Stauromenou Petrou\ this Church is 
on the Banks of the Iliffus, and is fuppofed by Wheeler and Spon, to be the Temple of Diana Agrotera. 

The Ornament at the End of this Chapter, is a Diagonal View of one of the Angular Capitals belong- 
ing to this Building, and is here given, to fhew the Junction of the two Semi- Volutes, on the internal 
Angle of this Capital. 

Although Monf. Le Roy has given no particular Defign of this Building, he has made feveral Mis- 
takes concerning it; for in the Plate entitled, Vae du Monument, appelle vulgairement a Athenes, V Arc 
de Thefee, which is the XXIft of the h'ftorical Part of his Work, he has introduced a fmall diftant 
Building, on which, and on fome diftant Columns in the fame View, he difcourfes in the following 
Manner, [V] * In this Piate, to the left Hand of the Arch of Adrian, are feen fome Columns which 
1 are the Remains of the Pantheon of Adrian. The Temple likewife of Diana Agrotera, or the Hun- 
■ trefs, is to be obferved there, it is neceffary to pafs the Iliffus to arrive at it, and you .there find it near 
1 the Stadium, &c. The Temple of Diana Agrotera was one of the fimpleft the Greeks have erected 
• and fome Remains of a beautiful Mofaic are ftill to be feen in it, the modern Greeks have made a Church 
4 of it which they call Stauromenos Petrvs, or St. Peter crucified. This laft Temple appeared to me 

[a] ' On voit dans cette meme Planche, a gauche de l'Arc d'Adrien, * Pierre crucifie. Ce dernier Temple m'a paru & peu confiderable que j'ai 

« des colonnes qui font les reftes du Pantheon d'Adrien. On y remarque auffi « juge fuperflu d'en donner le deffein en grand. Et que je n'en ai dit qu'un 

« le temple de Diane- Agrotera ou la Chaflereffe, dont Paufanias parle. II 'mot; mais j'ai cru au contraire, devoir donner la vue des mines du Pan- 

• faut pafler l'lliffus pour y arriver, & on le trouve aupre's du Stade, &cc. Le * theon dont je viens de parler, & m'etendre particulierement fur l'hiftoire de 
t Temple de Diane -Agrotera etoit une des plus fimples que les Grecs £leve- ■ ce Monument, le plus fupcrbe de tons ceux qu* Adrien fit clever dans la Ville 
' rent. On y voit encore quelques relies d'une belle Mofa'ique. Les Grecs ' d'Athenes.' 

• modernes en ont fait une Eglise, qu'ils nomment Stauromenos Petros, faint 

of 






Of the Ionic Temple of the Ilijus. 



ir 

^ contlnli; VZ2T^ ! J n gCd ", fUPerflU ° US t0 giVC a krge ^ ° f * a " d «- *« -y Htde 

• theon whfch I have 2 b P 7 5?* * ""** * *" * VieW ° f the Ruins of *" *"" 
theon, which I tavejuft before mentioned, and to enlarge on the Hiftory of that Structure the moft 

c eded in , * Difquint.on on the Pantheon as he ealls it, will be fecn in the laft Chapter of this Volume • 
at prefent ,t wJl be fufficient to obferve, that the little Grecian Temple he has he« mentled alio'' 
he omits to tell us what Order it is of, is by its Situation apparently intended to repre^t the Ionic 
Temple which has been treated of in this Chapter; and of Conference it will be fold I Z I 
totally miftaken many Particulars relating to it, for it has never been fuppofed, except by Mon Z 
Roy to be the Temple of Diana Agrotera, nor is there the lean Traces oflv Mofaic WoiTn it n ^ 
is there one of the many Trees he has placed near it, neither is it called sJromcnos 2W. 

The Stadium, and the Bridge over the lliflus are i of a Mile higher up the River than this Temple • 

ritT, t: ifta r above the stadium - is the church ca » ed *— ***. *» £& 

both Wheler and Spon, who where neither of them Architeds, have fu PP of«l to be th Temple of 
Diana Agrotera, and « has a Mofaic Pavement; but Monf. Le Roy could not mean to call this a'cre- 
oan Temple, becaufe rt .entirely a rude modern Building, throughout which, except the Pavement, 
there 1S not one ancient Stone in its original Place, nor is there any other Circumftance, except te 

ZZt t '1 ""I I! 3 - 6 ; ^ ? r dCnt Temp,e ' M a regU,ar ReCe ° f Architecture, was ever fit* 
ated on the Spot. It * besides at leaft half a Mile to the left of any Object he has reprefented in his 
View, and of Confequence, muft be confiderably out of his Pi&ure. 

The Fa«ft feems to be that Monf. Le Roy has heard, and perhaps read of both thefe Churches, but 
m Reality has feen neither of them: and his Account happens to be confufed, becaufe he has unluckily 
joined the two Relations together, and has attributed them both to one Building. 










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CHAPTER III. 

Of the OSiogon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrheftes. 

THIS Odtogon Tower is of Marble, on each Side is a Figure in Relievo, reprefenting one of the 
eight Winds; which proves it to be the Marble Odogon Tower, built at Athens by Androni- 
cus Cyrrheftes : as will appear from the following Defcription of it, given us by Vitruvius [*]. 
1 Some have chofen [fays he] to reckon only four Winds, the Eaft blowing fromthe equinodial Sun-rife, 

* the South from the Noon-day Sun, the Weft from the equinodial Sun-fetting, and the North from the 
c Polar Stars. But thofe who are more exad, have reckoned eight Winds, particularly Andronicus 
c Cyrrheftes, who on this Syftemere&ed an O&ogon Marble Tower at Athens, and on every Side of the 
1 O&ogon, he wrought a Figure in Relievo, reprefenting the Wind which blows againft that Side ; the Top 
i of this Tower he finifhed with a conical Marble, on which he placed a brazen Triton, holding a Wand 
( in his right Hand ; this Triton is fo contrived that he turns round with the Wind, and always flops 
c when he diredly faces it: Pointing with his Wand, over the Figure of the Wind at that Time 

* blowing.' 

In Order to give an exad Idea of the prefent State of this Building, it is neceffary to obferve, that 
fince the Time it was ereded, the Surface of the Ground is raifed fifteen or fixteen Feet on every Side 
of it, except that which looks to the North-Eaft ; here indeed it is not raifed above ten or twelve Feet, 
for the Entrance is on this Side, and a confiderable Quantity of Earth has been removed to make it 
acceflible. There were originally two Doors to this Building; one of them on the North-Eaft Side, 
which is the Entrance already mentioned, and is ftill in Ufe ; the other is on the North- Weft Side, but 
remains totally clofed up and concealed, by that Quantity of Soil and Rubbift), which has fo confider- 
ably raifed the Surface of the Ground here and in this Neighbourhood : So great an Accumulation of 
Earth, has likewife confiderably diminimed the apparent Height of this Building, and of Confequence, 
has abfolutely deftroyed whatever Beauty might originally refult from its general Proportions. It is 
morever much encumbered, and in great Part (hut up from View, by the ordinary Houfes near it, and 
by the Walls of thofe little Enclofures which belong to them; belides which, all the Mouldings within 
reach are fo defaced, that it is fcarcely poflible to determine, what was their original Form. 



[ a ] VitTuvius in the fixth Chapter of his firft Book, treating of the 
Number and Quality of the Winds, and their Effet^s on the human Body ; 
has oecafionally defcribed this Building in the following Words : * Nonnulis 
' placuit efle Ventos quatuor, ab Oriente tequinoaiali Solanum, a Meridte 
* Auftrum, ab Occidente aquinodiali Favonium, a Septentrionali Septentri- 
1 onem. Sed qui diligentius perquifiverunt, tradiderunt eos efle odo, maxi- 
1 me quidem Andronicus Cyrrheftes, qui etiaxn Exemplum collocavit Athenis 



« Turrim marmoreum OSiogonon, & in fingulis Lateribus Oclogoni, flngu- 
■ lorum Ventorum Imagines exfculptas contra fuos cujufque Flatus deflgnavit, 
« fupraque cam Turrim metam marmoream perfecit, & inf..per Tr.toncm 

• sereum coMocavit, dextra Manu virgam porrigenfem, & ita eft machinatus, 

• uti Vento circomageretur, & femper contra Flatum confifteret, fupraque 
4 Imaginem flantis Venti indiccm Virgam teneret. Book i. Chap. 6. 



G 



From 



i 4 



Of the Ottogon Tower of Jndronicus Cyrrhefies. 



From fuch disadvantageous Circumftances it is, that this Building does not, at its firft Appearance, 
prefent the Spectator with an Idea of any extraordinary Beauty, or immediately give him that Plea" e 
which he will receive on a more particular Examination of it. 

The Roof, befides being curious for its Conftruflion, is of a Form remarkably elegant, and where- 
ver it can be feen, has a very fine Efcfi. The Figures on the Sides of the Odrogon, are noble bold 
Pieces of Sculpture, both for the Defign and Execution, and ingeniously exprefs the Charader/of the 
Winds they are inKnded to r eprefen, Under each of thefe Figures there is a Sun-dial ; and as the Ea ft 
Dial, .onjy the Weft D,alreverfed, and as the Noon-day Line in the South Dial, , a Perpendicular 
fiom which the Hour-lines belonging to the Forenoon, are equally diftant with the coaefpoln 
Hour-hnes belongmg to the Afternoon j it is obvious, that the Aftronomer who marked out the" Di 
ah, fuppofed the Sides of this Oclogon Power, exa % fronted the four cardinal Points of the Holon 
and the four principal intermediate Points : and it appears that he was not miftaken; for on applyW 
to its weftern Side, (which, according to this Suppofition, fhould be in the Plane of the Meridian ^ 
magnetic Needle, made for fuch Purpofes under the Direction of the ingenious and accurate D, Knii 

neatdt ^OKr 8 Tl « ^ ^ "" "' 5 which as f - - could be afcertainedb Re- 

peated Mendum Obfervat.or.s of the Sun, was at that Time the magnetic Variation at Athens. 

To trace the original Form of this Building it was neceffary to make feveral confiderable Excavations 
The firft was a Trench along the South-Eaft Side ; where at the Depth of about fourteen Feet the Pper 
Step appeared and after that two others, and at length the Pavement. TheTrench was then carried round 
he Angle at the fouthern Extremity of thisSide, with an Intent to continue it likewife along th t S 1 w h h 
fronts the South ; but here the Workmen were foon flopped by a Wall which projected from it, and 
appeared evidently to be an original Part of the Building ; for not only the fame' Ranges of MafonT r e 
continued here, but many of the Blocks of Marble are fo wrought as to be dW Jri 7 
Face of the Odogon, and partly in this new difcov.red Wall : Ontther S arch/ ^ *„dT I 
bu.lt on a Plan which is about three fourths of a Circle, and to projed from rhe SolZe <t 
Oaogon, after the Manner of a modern Bow-Window. The next Place that feemed to demand 
W Attention was on the North Weft Side ; where under the Figure of Skiron, there remaned Ze 
font Traces of the other Door, which it was now refolved to examine. Here on removing eTa 
Quantity or Earth, not only the Door Cafe appeared, but alfo the greater Part of two Zed Co Lm" 
ft nding on the Steps before it, were found in their original Situations- many Fragments of the En 
tabiature and Pediment they had fupported, were likewife dug up in making thefe RelX a Uhth 
furn^ed abundant Materials for reftoring this Edifice to the Form in whict it is reprelt d V e HI 
every Part of which is fairly made out from Remains found on the Spot except onlv the Pn \Z 1, 
on the Top of the Roof, with the Triton which is fupported by it; ZZXk^ol ^ n 
of Vitruvius, and areadded here for the Sake of gifg the /eader a morepe^ iTo/ SftS 
ing, and the general Effect of it when the whole was complete. 

This Tower is now become a Turkifli Chappel, and is called the Techh ■ it U * n „r . ™ r 
great Devotion, in which at ftated Times, certain Dervifes perform I c r 'cul r ml! * ^ ° f 

But as the Infideof the Towerwas filled to a confiderable Height, ^^Jt^^ 
quah ty of whofe Surface nught prove fome Impediment to this religious Exercife the whl <T T 
been Idd with a Deal Floor, at the Diftance of about feven Feet from the an ," P a Ln t ThT^ 

^ ; h i D r ifes was , app,i -i to> for permiffion to break ^ the *«*> and C :;^ a ; thc t : 

«£& orr ct P r eH which arc -^ — f - - rtr,^t 



it 



\ 



Of the Octagon Tower of Andronkus Cyrrhejies. I$ 

It is difficult to afcertain the P urpo fe which thefe Channels were defigned to anfwer feme Reafons 
however concur, to make U probable, that they are the Remains of a Qepfydra or w£^& 

The principal Channel is continued in a flrait Line from the South Side of the OcW, to the Cen- 

u' T R Pa T en V ; e 7 thCre ^ a CirCUkr H ° ,e Whkh c — -ates with a «2^XS 
Here the Reader wul pleafe to recollect, that a Piece of Building which projects from th^L^S 

Qrcle ^^ ,1^ fadydefcribed; and its Plan was faid to be about three fourths o a 
Cxrcle: Tins may well have ferved for a Caftellum, or Refervoir, from whence a Quantity of Water « 
was contmully fupphed, fufficient to work the Clepfydra; the Hole in the Middle of J L^ t 
would convemently ferve to carry off the wafte Water, by means of the fubterraneous PaflW with 
winch lt commumcates. No Attempt will be made at prefent, to retrieve the particular Strulure of 
this Machme; or to fhew precifely, the Manner in which the Traces now remaining, were connect 
wxth the Parts that have been long fince deftroyed : To give this indeed would be to produce a Proof 
whereas no more is here intended than to propofe a Conjecture. 

If it fhould be judged neceffary for the Support of this Conjecture, to point out fome Stream or Sup. 
ply of Water near this Place, by which the fuppofed Water Dial might have been regularly worked- 
it does happen that fuch a Stream is to be found. For there is a Spring [A] which riles at the Foot of 
the Rock on which the Acropolis is built, fomewhat before you arrive at the Propyls, and fupplies a 
Current, of which indeed nobody drinks, for the Water is brackifh; but it is conveyed, partly under 
Ground, and partly in earthen Pipes which are fupported by Walls, to the principal Mojbtea ; where the 
Turks uie it for thofe Ablutions which they conftantly perform whenever they begin their Devotions 
It is remarkable, that this Stream before it arrives at the Mofchia, paffes within 1Q Feet of the Tower 
here treated of, and what particularly deferves our Notice, either the Stream itfelf or the Fountain 
which furmflies the Stream, was anciently called by the Name of Clepfydra [*]. 



[a] The Ancients, betides the Ufe of Sundials, had various Methods for 
meafuring Time by Means of Water. That by which the Orators at Athens 
were obliged to regulate the Length of their Pleadings, was indeed a very 
fimple Contrivance? but there were alfo Machines of a complex and artificial 
Conftru&ion, which being put in Motion by Water ferved to {hew the Hours : 
Suidas informs us that thefe Inftruments were called Clepfydra. 

KAevJ/uSpa. fyyavov aYfoAoyjxo" « «Ta» «?a« ptr^wtou, &c. *, dyyeTov fyov jtuxp o- 
ra'njv litiy crgpi rlv vrvQ(xevz. c'tfep ev tf Sixz^iu ps^ov u$ztos ertfsro. m§U o fAsyoy 
•i pn*opes. Suidas on the Word Clepfydra. 

* Clepfydra. An aftronomical Inftrument, by which the Hours are mea- 

* fured, &c. Alfo a Veffel having a very fmall Hole towards the Bottom, 
1 which was fet full of Water, in the Place where Caufes were tried. By 

* which Veffel the Orators were ufed to plead/ 

Vitruvius, for what Reafon is not certain, feems ftudioufly to avoid calling- 
thefe Inftruments by the Name of Clepfydra, he has however in the 9th 
Chapter of his ninth Book, defcribed fome of them under the Name of (Ho- 
rologia ex Aqua) Water Dials and (Horologia Hyberna) Winter Dials. The 
many minute Particulars which are mentioned in thefe Dcfcriptions, mult ren- 
der them almoft unintelligible, unlefs they are accompanied with Figures of 
the Dials defcribed; but omitting fuch Particulars, a general Idea of one of 
them will not perhaps be unacceptable to the Reader. 

' To convey the Water to this Machine, the following Method,' (fays Vi- 
truvius) « muft be obferved: Behind the Dial let a Caftellum or Refervoir 

* be made, to which the Water is conveyed by a Pipe, in the Bottom let there 

* be a Cavity, and in this fix a brazen Tympanum, having a Hole in it, by 
' which the W r ater may run out of the Refervoir,' &c. This Water was 
conveyed into a Receptacle or Bafon which it gradually filled, in the Bafon 
was a Piece of Cork, or other buoyant Subftance, which floated on the Sur- 
face of the Water, and gradually mounted with it, as the Bafon filled ; to the 
Float was fixed one End of a fmall Chain, the other End of the Chain being 
carried oter the Axis of a Wheel, had a Weight fixed to it, which counter- 
poifed the Float, and always kept the Chain ftretched ; (o that as the Bafon 
filled and the Float mounted, the Counterpoife of Courfe dsfcended, and the 
Axis of the Wheel, about which the Chain was paffed, neceffarily turned 
round; the Wheel alfo in which the Axis was placed turned round with it 
and fhewed the Hour: The Equability of the Wheels Motion, and of Confc- 
quence, the Corre&nefs of the Dial, evidently depended on the equal Flow 
of the Water out of the Refervoir into the Bafon. 



There were doubtlefs various other Methods of conftructing thefe Dial?, 
fome of which gave Motion to little Figures, or founded inltruments, or per- 
formed other curious Feats; and fome of them ftruck the Hour, by dropping 
little Stones upon a Tympanum. But whatever the Machinery might be, the 
Caftellum or Refervoir of Water, with the Channels or Pipes for conduding 
it, fo as to operate on the Inflrumcnt, and a Place alfo for conveying away the 
wade Water, mull have been eflcntially neceffary to them all. 

[£] This Spring is mentioned by Paufanias, who fays it is near the Grotto 
in which were the Temples of Apollo and Pan ; thefe Temples are deftroyed, 
but the Grotto, with this Spring which is juft under it, ftill remain exactly in 
the Situation where Paufanias has defcribed them ; near it is another lefs con- 
futable Spring, which foon unites its Waters with the abovementioned, and 
here Paufanias feems to place the Temple of Efculapius, in which he obferve* 
there was a Fountain. See Paufanias, Page 49. 

Sir George Wheler ia the firft, if not the only Traveller who has taken 
notice of the Water, which thefe Springs furnifh. See his Travels, page 383. 

[c] Ariftophanes feems to place this Sj ring called Clepfydra, near the 
Grotto of Pan. 



KI. jWj r'j vS Ilavo;, xaXjv 



MT. Ka) taujg f5' ayvti &JV a'vjA^' «; woA«v ; 

KI. Ka'AX»j-a ^wa Ascra^snj tJ KAs^y fya. Lyfijlrata, ver. 909. 

KT. conveniently, in the Grotto of Pan, 
• MT. But hew fhall I return purified into the City; 
' KI. Very well furely, after walhing yourfelf at the Clepfydra.' 
Plutarch mentions this Spring, though without faying in what part of 
Athens it rifes. 

' Ka] Kxrd n '/.o'ytov ditl rjj KAe^yfya/ u'5<rro< ly.TrXr / <rd[jLEv& dyfijov, lxiu.i*sy.' 
Plutarch in the Life of Af. /.ntonius. 

i And (M. Antonius) in Obedience to a certain Oracle having filled a Vef- 
r fel with the Water of the Clepfydra, he carried it with him. 
But Hefychius in the following Paffage is more explicit. 

KkttyippvTOv. v'Swf ro'riJV KAs^yfya/. ol'jt^ Si {ft xf'.yr, afy'vrtnv aVo* ttJs axforj- 
Kews if) f <*.Vws £ ixocrjy oVp yh ^o.aivij. Hefychius on the IVord K\s4>ip{'vroY. 

1 Clepfirrhyton or flowing by Stealth. The Water of the Clepfydra. 
« This is a Spring at Athens, which from the Acropolis is carried under 
• Ground, a Courfe of about twenty Stadia.' 









H 



The 



i6 



Of the Octogon Tower of Andronicas Cyrrheftes. 



The Silence of Vitruvius, in Relation to the Exiftence of fo curious a Machine in this Place, it muft 
be confefled, feems no Way favourable to this Conjecture; no Inference can however be drawn from 
thence, to leflen its Probability; fince that Author takes no Notice of the Sun-Dials on this Building, 
either in the above cited Defcription of it, or in that Part of his Work where he treats particularly of 
Sun-Dials : and that thefe were not added fince the Time in which he wrote, is evident from Var- 
ro [tf], a more ancient Writer, who calls this Building the Horologimn of Cyrrheftes; which not only 
proves that it then ferved to (hew the Hours, but alfo fuggefts that Varro confidered this, as the 
principal Purpofe it was defigned to anfwer: And it is here worth remarking, that the Word Horolo- 
gium is a general Name, and is ufed not only to fignify a Sun-dial, but likewife[£] a Water-dial or 
Clepfydra. 

It may perhaps be faid, that the Hours are fufficiently marked by Sun-dials on the outfide ; and that 
fuch a Machine as is here fuppofed, would therefore have been fuperfluous in this Place : but this Ob- 
jection will appear of no Weight, and thofe Sun-dials will rather furnifb an Argument in Favour of 
the Conjecture, when it is confidered that they could be of no Ufe at Night or in cloudy Weather; and 
that it was necefTary to have recourfe to fome other Contrivance, in order to meafure the Hours when 
the Sun did not fhine: Accordingly we find that a Sun-dial and a Water-dial were placed together in 
thofe Paths of Hippias, which Lucian [c] has defcribed: It likewife appears probable from Pliny [J] 
that both thefe Species of Dials were in the Roman Forum; for which he gives the Reafon alluded to 
above, obferving that after they had at length erected a good Sun-dial there, yet in cloudy Weather they 
were at a Lofs to know the Hour; and that therefore they erected a Water-dial. It may however be 
doubted, if the Ancients, with all their Genius and Diligence, could make a Clepfydra which for any 
confiderable Space of Time, would meafure out the Hours with what we mould now efteem a tole- 
rable Degree of Exactnefs : if fo, a Sun-dial was as necefTary a Regulator to the Clepfydra, as that was 
a Supplement to the Sun-dial. 




This Euilding, therefore, fo highly decorated, (landing in a principal Part of the City, near the 
Agora; conftructed purpofely to fhew the Direction of the Winds, the Seafon of the Year, and the 



And again, ' KX£\J/ufy a xf»y») tJVj; rl nrpe'ref oy 'E/xtfE^w orpoorjyof eveto, &c. tyti $1 

* rds fvo-tis avareXXouVay e); riv faXijf e'ay ftftxoy. 'ilooKiytov, ' Ofyayoy, iv Sal i'f«i 

• /xgrfa won. Hefycbius on the Word KAs^u'fya. 

* Clepfydra, a Fountain which was formerly called Empedo, &c. It has its 
Streams rifing in the Demos of Phalerus. An Horologium, a Machine by 
which the Hours are meafured.' 

' ITeJw. f t vuv xaABfxJyij KA£\J/Jofa. v.fayij h^'A^si. Hefycbius on the wordUsitu. 

' Pedo, which is now called Clepfydra, a Fountain in the City [of Athens.] 

From thefe three Paffages in Hefychius we may obferve, fiiP, that the 
Source of this Water rofe at the Acropolis, and ran a confiderable Way under 
ground. Secondly, that it afterwards rofe again and made its appearance in 
the Phalerus. This particular is indeed exprefied with more Precifion by Pliny, 
whofe Words will be a good Comment on the fecond of thefe Quotations 
fom Hefychius. 

* Suheunt Terras rurfufque redduntur, Lycus in Afia, Erafinus in Argo- 
' lica, Tygris in Mefopotamia, & quae in ./Efculapii Fonte Athenis immerfae 
' funt, in Phalerico redduntur, Nat. Hijl. book 1. Chap. 103. 

* The River Lycus in Afia, the Erafinus in the Territory of Argos, the 
' Tygris in Mefopotamia, run under Ground, and afterwards rife again ; and 
1 the things which are immerfed in the Fountain of jEfculapius at Athens, are 
* thrown up again in the Phalerus.' 

Here we are plainly to!d, that the exa& Spot where thefe Waters were ab- 
forhed, was in the Temple of /Efculapius, mentioned in the Note [b] of the 
preceding Page ; and it is clear, that not the Sources, as Meurfius interprets 
this Place in Hefychius, but the Streams which had been thus abforbed, rofe 
again in the Phalerus. Laftly, there feems to be an Error in the Text of 
Hefychius, where he fays that the Water of the Clepfydra is carried under 
Ground the Space of twenty Stadia: For the Diftance from the Acropolis to 
the Phalerus is pretty exactly 37 Stadia. May we not therefore fufpeel, that 
the oiiginal reading was 37 expreffed by the Characters AZ ; and that thefe, by 
the Inaccuracy of the Tranfcriber, might be changed into AA the Characters 
which exprefs 20? Thucydides [Book II. Section XIII.] makes the Length 



of the Phaleric Wall 35 Stadia, and from the Temple of ^fculapius to the 
Beginning of the Phaleric Wall, muft have been at leaft 2 Stadia. Hefychius 
therefore with the Correction here propofed, will agree with Thucydides, as he 
will alfo with our a&ual Survey. 

[a] « In eodem Hemifphaerio medio, circum Cardinem, eft Orbis Ventorum 
f oclo ; ut A thenis in Horologio quod fecit Cyrrheites,' Varro , de Re Rujlica, 
book 3, Chap. 5. 

* In the middle of the fame Hemifphere, round the Axis, is the Circle of 
* the eight Winds, as at Athens in the Horologium which Cyrrheftes made.* 

[£] Pliny fpeaking of the Water-dial erected at Rome by Scipio Nafica, 
fays, * idque Horologium fub te&o dicavit.' Nat, Hijl. Book 7. Chap, lajl, 
See likewife Vitruvius, Book 9. Chap. 9. And Hefycbius on the Word Clepfydra* 
already cited. 

(c) woZv $1 forlds SyXwo-sis, tqv j«,ty $t j'Jarof 3 pvnrjp.ot.ros [forte jXTj^ayij^arof] 
r},v H fo' r}h':n iiri5«ixyiJ|*eyoy. See Lucian in bis Hippias. 

1 And the Hours are here exhibited in two Manners ; one by Water and 
' Sound ; [or by Water and a Machine] the other by the Sun. 

[d~\ Pliny informs us, on the Authority of Varro, that the firft Dial fet up 
for public Ufe at Rome, was brought from Catania in Sicily; and was placed 
on a Column near the Roftra, by the Conful M. Valerius Meffala, in the 
Year of Rome 491 : But as this Dial had been projected for a more Southern 
Latitude, it did not (hew the Hours with exa&nefs, when it was placed in the 
Roman Forum ; fuch as it was however, the Romans regulated their time by 
it for the Space of ninety nine Years, when Q;, Marcius Philippus, who was 
Cenfor with Lucius Paulus, caufed another Dial made with greater Accuracy, 
to be erected near the old one : This Prefent, Pliny obferves, was very acceptable 
to the Romans: But ftill in cloudy Weather the precife Time of Day could 
not be afcertained. Five Years afterwards indeed, this Defect was remedied ; 
for then Scipio Nafica, the Collegue of Laenas, introduced a Method of divid- 
ing the Night as well as the Day into Hours, by means of Water ; and having 
conftru&ed a machine for that Purpofe, which Pliny calls an Horologium 
and fays it was under a Roof, he dedicated it, in the Year of Rome 595, or 
158 Years before Chrift.. See Plinfs Natural Hi/lory, Book 7, Chap, the laji. 

Hour 



Of the Octogon Tower of Andronkus Cynhe/ies. 17 

Hour of the Day; and ferving to regulate whatever Bufinefs depended on the Obfervation of them- 
would have anfwered its intention very imperfectly, without fome fuch Contrivance as a Clepfydra The 
Opinion that fuch an Inftrument has been placed in this Tower, was firft fuggefted by the Channels on 
the Pavement ; but whatever was the Ufe of thefe Channels, it is certain that they are only the Remains 
of fomething which has formerly been more confiderable ; and the Accuracv with which they are wrought 
is fome Indication, that great Exadnefs in the Execution was thought necelTary to effect that Pur- 
pofe, whatever it might be, towards which they were originally defigned to contribute. 

Another obftacle ftill remained, which it was neceflary to remove, before the Delineation of this 
Building could be completed; for the whole Figure of Libs or the South West Wind, and half the 
Figure of Notos or the South Wind, were concealed in the Wall of a neighbouring Houfe; which the 
Owner was prevailed on to pull down, and thefe Sculptures were then difcovercd perfect and unhurt. 
The fame Perfon when he rebuilt the Houfe, agreed for a fmall Confideration to leave fome Space be-" 
tween that and the two Figures; and even confented that a Window mould be left in the Wall on that 
Side, through which they might be conveniently viewed by any future Traveller. 



PLATE 



I. 



A View of the Tower of the Winds in its prefent Condition, taken from a Window in the Houfe of 
the Mudeereefs Effendu Over the Door- Way of this Building and on each Side of it, are evident Traces 
of the Entablature and Pediment which formerly adorned it; thefe will be referred to and explained 
at Plate VII. and Plate VIII. The diftant Rock with the Building on it, reprefents Part of the Acro- 
polis or Fortrefs of Athens. The Turk with long Hair, whofe Back is turned to the Spectator, is 
the Sheih Mvjiapha; chief of thofe Derrviflies who perform the circular Dance in the Tower of the 
Winds; on the Top of which, in a Cavity to be defcribed at Plate VI. he has by way of Orna- 
ment, placed a large wooden Model of his Turban. The Female Figures reprefent a Chnflian Ma- 
tron of diftinction, accompanied by three of her Daughters and her Servant Maid; the Matron is in 
the Habit proper to her Age and Station, it is extremely fhort-waifted : and is generally made of Scarlet 
Cloth: two of her Daughters, who are marriageable, are veiled, and walk behind her; the third, who 
is very young, is under the Care of the Servant-Maid. In the white Wall which is immediately behind 
thefe Figures, may be obferved a darkim horizontal Line from which fome Herbs or Weeds are 
growing: The Darknefs of that Line and the Growth of the Weeds, is occafioned by Leakage from 
the Water-pipes which are inferted in that Part of the Wall ; by thefe Pipes, the brackifTi Stream 
whofe Sources are at the Fcot of the Acropolis, is conveyed towards the principal Mofchea. 

The Gate, through which the Horfes are coming, leads into the Bazar or Market Place, which you 
here enter clofe by the principal Mofchea. On the Fore-Ground of this View is a Wall, in which 
may be obferved feveral Fragments of Statues, and ruined Mouldings of Architecture. 

PLATE II. 

The Plan of the Tower of the Winds. A, the prefent Entrance, which is under the Figure of 
Kaikias. B, the Entrance under the Figure of Skir07i, before which the Level of the Street is raifed to 
the Top of the Door-Cafe : here the Steps before the Door, the Columns, and many other particulars 
relating to this Building were difcovered. C, the additional Building under the Figure of Notos, which 
communicated with the infide of the Octogon Tower, by means of an Aperture in the South wall ; 
this Aperture from the remains of a Fillet which furrounded it [fee Fig. IV.] appears to have been 
fmall and rectangular; but its exact Dimenfions cannot now be determined, that part of the wall 
being broke away and the Aperture enlarged, purpofely, it mould feem, to gain a more eafy admiflion 
to the infide of this additional Building. The Pavement within the Tower being. lower than the 
Threfhold of the Door, you defcend to it by the Step L. 

I The 



i8 



Of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhejies. 



The Marks and Channels on the Pavement admit of little Explanation : it may however be obferved 
I hat the circular Hole in the Center, communicates with a fubterraneous Paflage marked by the two 
parallel doted Lines D E, FG. 

Each external Face of the Ocftogon Tower confidered without its Ornaments, is one perpendicular 
Plane from top to bottom; but on the infide it is otherwife, for that part of each Face which is above 
the denticulated Cornice [fee Plate IV.] projects two Inches over the Part which is between the faid 
Cornice and the Pavement. The loweft of the interior Cornices is interrupted by the two Doors, and 
breaks off on each Side of them in a very obtufe Angle : and the upper Cornice or Entablature fup- 
ported by eight Columns, as likewife the Fafcia on which thofe Columns ftand, are circular. So far 
therefore a; the Plan regards thefe Particulars which are on the infide of the Tower, it is necessary to 
divide it into four Parts. The firft Part from a to b, is one fourth of the interior Surface of the Wall 
immediately above the Pavement; the fecond from b to c, is one fourth of the interior Surface imme- 
diately above the lower Cornice ; here the greareft Projection of this Cornice is marked by a fingle 
Line, and the manner of its breaking on each Side of the Door-ways is alfo fhewn : The third Part 
from c to d, is the interior Surface of the Wall above the fecond Cornice ; the Projection of this Cor- 
nice is alfo marked with a fingle Line : The lafl Part from d to a, is the remaining fourth cf the inte- 
rior Surface; on this is marked the circular Band or Fafcia on which the eight Columns are placed, with 
the Flans of two of thofe Columns. 

PLATE III. 

The Elevation of the Tower of the Winds. It has en already faid, that the Triton and the coni- 
cal Marble on which he is placed, are added from the Defcription of Vitruvius: And it is neceiTary to 
fjy further, that the Capitals here given to the Columns of the Portal, although they were found among 
the Ruins of this Building, did perhaps never belong to it; for the upper Part of the Shafts of thefe 
Columns are broken off, and it is not poffible to be certain how they finifhed. This Kind of Capi- 
tal has been in frequent Ufe both at Athens and in other Parts of Greece, and that which fupports the 
Triton at the Top of the Roof, a confiderable Fragment of which remains, evidently appears to 
have been of this Species ; that is, the upper Range of Leaves was not divided like the Acanthus, or 
like any other of the Foliages proper to the Corinthian Capital, but were fmooth and refemble what 
our workmen call Water Leaves. The Fragment of this Capital and the Cavity in which it was ori- 
ginally placed, will be particularly defcribed in Plate VI. The kind of Bafe which fupports this Capi- 
tal and terminates the Roof, is the only Moulding which is fupplied here without due Authority for 
its Form. 

PLATE IV. 

A Section of the Tower of the Winds. This will be fufficiently underftood by what has been faid 
to explain Plate II. All the Space from the Pavement to the Top of the Cornice A, was filled with 
Dirt and Rubbifh, among which feveral human Bones were found : and over all this, the Deal Floor 
was laid fo as to conceal the Cornice A. As the Greeks bury in their Churches, the human Bones 
found here feem to indicate that this has once been a Chriftian Church. 

plate v. 

The external Mouldings of the Tower of the Winds. The Lion's Head on the Cymatium is per- 
forated and ferves as a Spout to carry off the Rain-water; there are three of them on each Face of the 
Octogon. 

Fig. II. A Section of the uppermoft of the three Steps which form the Balls or Stereobata on 
which this Euilding ftands, as alfo of the Torus and Fillet immediately above the uppermoft Step. 

PLATE 










Of the Octogon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhejles. 
PLATE VI. 



*9 



Fig. 1. A quarter of the Roof of the Tower of the Winds; it is of Marble and cut into the form of 
Tiles, (a) A A, a circular Cavity on the top of the Roof, in which the Capital to be defcribed at Fig 3 
was molt probably placed. BBB, Holes which communicate with the Lions Heads on the Cymatium, 
and convey the Rain Water through their mouths. 

Fig. 3. A Section of half the aforefaid Roof. A A , half the circular Cavity on the top of the Roof. B, 
half the Capital to be defcribed at Fig. 3, placed in that circular Cavity. The dotted Line CC is a 
continuation of the Roof and fupplies that part of it which is at prefent deftroyed. This Line is drawn, 
to fhew how much of the Capital marked B was originally concealed when the Roof was entire. 

Fig. 3 . The Fragment of a Capital marked B in the preceding Figure, and which in Plate I II. of this 
Chapter is, with fome reflorations, made to fupport the conical Marble and the Triton. We found it, when 
we firft arrived at Athens, thrown out of its place but ftill lying on the lower part of the Roof of this 
Tower ; from whence fome of the Dervifhes children afterwards rolled it down : It now ferves for a Seat, 
and is placed at the Dervifhes Door. But it is obvious that it flood originally as we have reprefented it 
in the III. and IV. Plates of this Chapter, and alfo in Fig. 2. of the prefent Plate. For the lower part of it 
marked B, tho' rudely wrought, is round, and exa&ly fits thecircular Cavity on the top of the Roof marked 
A A in the two preceding Figures. Befides, if we place it in this Cavity, and complete the upper Surface 
of the Roof by continuing the dotted Line CC, Fig. 2. till it interfecT: this Fragment, the round ruder 
part of it which was concealed by the Roof, will, by that interfeaion, be exa<% divided from the 
more finifhed oftogonal part which was expofed to View. It may likewife be obferved, that the oc- 
tagonal form of this part of the Capital, does in a particular manner render it an Ornament perfectly 
fuitable to the place affigned it; fince on that account, its Angles would properly coincide with the 
divifions of the Roof, and its Faces would correfpond with thofe of this 06logon Tower. 

PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1. The Capital and Entablature of the Portico before the Door. 
Fig. 2. A Fragment of the Dentells belonging to the Cornice of this Entablature. 
Fig. 3. The Profile of the Cornice belonging to the circular Projection under the Figure of no'toe. 
This Cornice, an aftragal only excepted, is compofed of the fame Mouldings with that of the Entablature. 

Concerning Fig. 1 . it has already been obferved that confiderable Remains of both the Columns 
ftanding before the North-Weft Door, were difcovered in their original fituation; they are without 
Bafes, and their Flutings are lingular. The fragment of a Capital of the fpecies here reprefented, 
was found on digging about this Building. It correfponds as well to the fragment on the top of the 
Roof, as to the general ftyle of ornament which prevails throughout this Tower. Such Capitals are 
frequent as well at Athens as in other Parts of Greece. Altho' we do not find, that any example of 
them has been hitherto published. 

The Authorities for the Entablature are as follow: The Architrave and Frize are taken from the 
Stone, a Section of which covered with Dotts is given in the following Plate. The Veftiges of four fuch 
Stones are ftill remaining, one end of each is vifible on the infide of the Tower, for they are inferted the 
whole thicknefs of the Wall; the other ends, broken as they are, do neverthelefs project fomewhat 
from the furface of the Wall, and retain very perfectly the Profile of the Architrave and Frize. 

There is one of thefe Stones on each Side of either Door- Way, two of them are thus reprefented in 
Plate I. of this Chapter: they are likewife exprefled by Mr. Dalton, and by Monf. Le Roy (very negli- 
gently indeed by the latter) in their Prints of this Building. 



(a) This contrivance of covering Edifices with Marble wrought into the 
form of Tiles, appeared to the Ancients fo ofeful a piece of ingenuity, that 
they judged the Author of it worthy of having his name recorded in an In- 
fcription which fecured to him the honour of this Invention. Paufanias tells 
us that he was of Naxos, that his name was Byzes, and that he lived in the 



time when Alyattes reigned in Lydia, and Aftyages the fon of Cyaxares 
reigned over the Medes ; or about 580 years before the Chriftian JErz : which 
makes him contemporary with Solon the Athenian, and Tarquinius Prifcus 
King of the Romans. Paufanias, Book 5, page 398. 



K 



No 



20 



Of the Octogon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrheftes. 



No Part either of the Cornice or Pediment remain in their proper Places; thefe were eafily throv/n 
down, becaufe the Stones out of which they were formed, did not like the laft mentioned make part of 
the Wall; but the furface of the Wall being fomewhat funk to receive them, they were very fuper- 
ficially inferted or bedded in it. As this part of the furface of the Wall appears to have fitted very 
exactly with the Profile of the Cornice, and the Pitch of the Pediment; it was thought fufficient au- 
thority for reftoring them both in Plate III. efpecially as many Fragments were found on digging here, 
that exactly fitted thofe Traces of the Cornice which ftill remain cut in thefe Walls. One of thefe 
Fragments is given at Fig. %. of this Plate. 

Mr. Dalton, tho' his Print is defigned only as a Sketch, has faithfully exprefled the general form of 
the Traces of this Cornice and Pediment, but they are ftrangely mifreprefented by Monf. Le Roy, in 
the Prints he has given of the Tower of the Winds. 

PLATE VIII. 

The Capital of one of the Antae, with the Veftiges of the Entablature and the Door-Cafe. This Capital 
is deftroyed, but the Traces of it remaining on the Wall againft which it profiled, indicate that it was 
of this form. The dotted Stone immediately over this Capital, is the Section of the Architrave and Frize, 
which was referred to in the defcription of the laft Plate; over this is a fhaded Profile, reprefenting the 
Traces of the Cornice which ftill remain cut into the furface of the Wall, as was explained in the fore- 
going Plate. The Mouldings of the Door-Cafe and thofe of the internal Face of the Architrave are 
not fo much defaced, as to prevent their Meafures and Profiles from being exactly determined. 

PLATE IX. 

The internal Mouldings of the Tower of the Winds. 

Fig. i. The lower Cornice. 

Fig. 2. The fecond Cornice, enriched with Dentels and Modilions. 

Fig. 3. The Soffit of the fecond Cornice. 

Fig. *3. The fame Soffit on a lefler fcale, fhewing the form of the angular Modilions, and of the 
irregular Pannels on each fide of them. 

Fig. 4. The circular Fafcia, with the inferior part of one of the Columns which it fupports, like- 
wife the Capital and the Entablature of thofe Columns. 

Fig. 5. Explains the manner in which the cabled part of the Flutings on thofe Columns are terminated. 

P L A T E X. 

Three of the eight Dials on the Tower of the Winds. Under the word no'tos is that on the South 
Side; under etpos is that on the South-Eaft Side; and under AnHAinTHS, that on the Eaft Side of 
the Tower. 

PLATE XL 

Two more of the eight Dials. Under the word kaiki'ae, is that on the North-Eaft Side; and 
under the word bope'as, that on the North Side of this Tower. The Lines on the three remaining 
Dials are the reverfe of thofe on the South-Eaft, the Eaft, and the North-Eaft Dials already mentioned; 
all thefe Lines are very entire, and the Cavities in which the Gnomons were fixed, are not much in- 
jured; but the Gnomons themfelves are deftroyed. 

It is obfervable that not only the Hours of the Day, but the Solftices alfo, and the Equinoxes are 
projected on thefe Dials ; and that the longeft as well as the fhorteft Days, are divided alike into 
twelve Hours. 

The eight following Plates are copyed from the Sculptures which reprefent the eight Winds; and 
becaufe many Perfons who are likely to become our Readers, have wiftied that fome notice fhould be 
taken of Monf le Roy's account of thefe figures; their defire mall here be complyed with. In doing 

this 






Of the Octogon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhejies. 



21 



this we fhall therefore, immediately after the account given of each Figure, fubjoin Monf. le Roy's def- 
cription of it, together with what Wheler or Spon have faid on the fame fubjea, that our Readers may 
have an opportunity of comparing them. By this comparifon it will be feen, that if Monf. le Roy owes 
a great deal to his copying their relation fo faithfully, he has by that fort of exadnefs been alfo led 
into many miftakes. 

To avoid repetition in the defcription of each particular Wind, we fhall here obferve in general that 
the Sculptor has given Wings to all thefe Figures; Libs and Zephyrus only appear with their Legs na- 
ked, all the others he has reprefented wearing a kind of Bufkin; and he has diftinguifhed each Figure, 
Eurus only excepted, by fome particular Symbol. In the following defcription of them, the effects of 
thefe Winds on the Climate of Athens, are remarked, fo far principally as relates to the Symbols which 
characterize them. 

PLATE XII. 

Boreas, The North Wind; is cold, fierce and ftormy. At Athens, from the fltuation perhaps of fome 
Rocks and Grottos, it makes a loud, hollow Noife, greatly refembling the found of a Conch-fhell when 
you blow through it; the Sculptor was probably induced from fuch refemblance of found, to place a 
Conch-Shell in the hand of this Figure. He is reprefented an old Man looking full on the Spectator, and 
is more warmly cloathed than any other of thefe Figures except Skiron; for over the Tunic or clofe 
Garment which defcends to his knees, he has a fhort Jacket with fleeves that cover his Arms quite 
down to his Wrift. His under Tunic is perhaps the Exomis, as that with the fleeves to it, may be the 
Cheirodota, and his Cloke or Mantle, the Chlamys of the Ancients, 



Monfieur Le Roy defcribes it thus, « Boreas, ou le Nord, qui 
• eft a gauche de Schiron, eft un vieux Barbon avec des bottines aux 
' jambes, fc? un Manteau dont il fe cache le vifage pour fe garantir 
*du Froid.' 



Wheelers Tranflator beftows the epithet of vieux Barbon on this 
Figure, and defcribes it almoft in the fame words with Spon, who 
fays : ' ce Vent la vole tr£s vite avec des bottines aux jambes, £s? un 
■ manteau dont ilfe cache le nez pour fe garantir du froid. II ne porte rien.' 



None of thefe Gentlemen, have obferved the Conch-Shell which is in the Hand of Boreas : and they 
are quite miftaken, when they fay, he hides his face in his Mantle. It is indeed the figure of Euros, 
that they have here defcribed under the Name of Boreas : which feems to prove, that Wheler and Spon 
did not make all their defcriptions on the fpor, but wrote their Notes by memory. To this we muft 
attribute, the feveral miftakes they have committed in relation to thefe Figures, Thefe miftakes, we 
fee, in this and in mod other Inftances, are repeated by Monfieur Le Roy. 

PLATE XIIL 

Kaikias or Ccecias, the North-Eaft Wind; is Cloudy, Wet and Cold; Snow, and at fome Seafons, 
Hail and Tempeft accompany this Wind. The figure which reprefents it, is an old Man with a fevere 
Countenance; He holds with both his Hands a circular Shield, from whence he feems prepared to rattle 
down a ftorm of Hail; the infide of it is turned to the Spectators; the Handle in the middle of it, 
proves to be a Shield. 



' Curias,' fays Monfieur Le Roy, ' ou le Nord-Eft, &c. eft un 
' Vieillard qui tient dans fa main un plat d'Olives quil renverfe. 
' Pour fignifier peut-etre que ce Vent eft nuifible a ce 
c Fruit.' 



Wheelers account of this Figure is thus rendered by his French 
Tranflator: * Cacias, ou le Vent de Nord-Eft, &c. eft reprefente 
■ comme un vieux Barbon, qui porte un plat d'Olives, quil renverfe, 
c &c. je croirois que ce vent eft ainfi reprefente patcc qu'il eft 
4 ennemi des Olives,' &c. 



But it is inconteftibly a Shield, and not a Difh which Cacias holds, and it is much more probable, 
that the Contents are Hail Stones than Olives. 

PLATE XIV. 

Apeliotes, the Eaft-Wind; brings a gradual gentle Rain, and is a great friend to Vegetation. The 
Sculptor has reprefented this Wind, by the figure of a young Man, with his hair flowing in every direction, 
he has a fine open Countenance, and holds with both Hands, the Skirt of his Mantle filled with va- 

L riety 






22 



Of the Octogon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrheftes. 



riety of Fruit, a Honey-Comb and fome ears of Corn ; this Wind is fuppofed at Athens to contribute 
to Fertility and Abundance, or as Dervijh Muftapha ufed to exprefs himfelf; ' this is a divine Wind, it 
wafts the bleffings of God to us from Mecca.' 



Monf. Le Roy fays, ' Apeliotes ou le Vent de Levant; eft ex- 

• prime par la figure d'un jeune Homme avec des Mies, portant dans 

* le pli defon Manteau des pommes de grenades, et toutes fortes de fruits, 
'four montrer que ce Vent rendoit le Pays fertile* 



Wheler's Tranflator defcribes this Wind in the following words. 
' Cefi la figure d'un jeune bomme avec des Mies, portant dans le pli de 
( fon Manteau des pommes, de citrons et des grenades, et toutes fortes de 
c fruits , pour montrer que ce vent rendroit ce Pays fertile ;' &c. 



Neither Wheler nor Spon have mentioned the ears of Corn or the Honey-Comb which Apeliotes 
carries in his Mantle. Monf, Le Roy has likewife omitted them. 



PLATE 



XV. 



Eurus, the South-Eaft Wind; which at Athens is fultry and gloomy, and brings much Rain. It is 
reprefented by an old Man with a morofe Countenance ; he is, more than any other of thefe Figures, 
wrapt up in his mantle; his right arm and hand is entirely hid in one part of it, and the other part 
which conceals his left arm, is held up before his face; his Veft is coniiderably longer than that be- 
longing to any other of thefe Figures. 



But Monf. Le Roy, who with Wheler and Spon has really de- 
fcribed this Figure when he fhould have defcribed Boreas, here tells 
us that Eurus is naked. ' Euros, fays he, ou le Vent de Sud-Eft, 
* a des Mies-, il ejl nud et ne forte rien. ' 



Both Wheler and Spon are ftrangely miftaken in their defcription 
of Eurus: the words by which Whelers Tranflator has expreffed 
him, are, ' il eft reprelente en jeune homme, avec des Mies, nud, et ne 
f portant rien* 



PLATE XVI. 



Notus, the South Wind; is fultry and very wet. 
figure of a young Man emptying a Jar of Water. 



The Sculptor has reprefented this Wind, by the 



PLATE XVII. 

Libs, the Sou th- Weft Wind ; blows directly acrofs the Saronic Gulf, full on thatfhore of Attica which 
extends from the Ifthmus of Corinth, to the Promontory of Sunium; and right into the Piraeus. This 
Wind is reprefented by the figure of a robuft Man, bearing in his hands the Apluftre [a) of a Ship, which 
he feems to pufh before him; but whether this fy mbol denotes the facility with which Ships by means 
of this Wind enter the Piraeus ; or whether it characterizes him a deftroyer of Ships, as that Coaft of 
Attica (6) becomes a dangerous Lee-Shore when this Wind blows, is not perhaps eafily determined. 

Wheler and Spon have not defcribed the Figures which reprefent thefe laft mentioned Winds, Libs 
and Notus \ nor indeed was it poffible they fhould; they did not fee them; for when Wheler and Spon 
were at Athens, thefe Figures were enclofed in the Wall of a Houfe adjoining to the Tower of the 
Winds. Monf. Le Roy found this Obftacle removed, and might have feen them to advantage, but he 
has neverthelefs omitted the defcription of them; he tells us however, that thefe Figures likewife have 
Allegories; but adds, that he could not diftinguifh them, fo well as he has diftinguifhed the others. 

(a) The Apluftre, or as the Grecians called it, the Aphlafton, is mentioned on the upper extremity of the Ships flern; but its ufe does not feem to be any 
by many ancient Authors: and is reprefented in many of the ancient Sculp- where clearly defcribed. 
tures and Paintings. By them we find, that the Apluftre was generally placed 



{b) Herodotus relates that after the battle of Salamis, the greater part of 
the broken Veflels of Xerxes's Fleet were driven by a Wefterly Wind to the 
Shore of Colias in Attica. See Herodotus, Book VIII. Now the Promon- 
tory of Colias is part of that Shore which it is already obferved, exadtly faces 
Libs or the South-Weft Wind. In another part of the fame Book VIII, 
we find that the Grecians returned to Salamis (where they had before brought 
all the Wreck, which continued floating about that Coaft) and having firft 
feparated that part of the Perfian fpoils, which they defigned to dedicate 
to the Gods, they divided the reft of the booty araongft themfelves. That 



part of the Spoils which they dedicated to Apollo at Delphi, was formed 
into a Statue twelve Cubits high, holding the Prow of a Ship in his hand. 
Thefe Spoils were perhaps, the brazen Beaks and Apluftra of the ruined 
Perfian Ships, and the Statue formed out of them might be the figure of 
Libs, the Wind which had driven thofe Wrecks on the Coaft of Attica. The 
Apluftre with which Libs is here figured on the Tower of the Winds, may 
be defigned to commemorate the fame Event. But this, it muft be owned is 
mere conjecture. 

PLATE 



Of the Octogon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhejles. 



*3 



PLATE XVIII. 

Zephyrus, the Weft Wind; in the Summer brings very fultry Weather, but in the Spring is pleafant, 
warm, and favorable to Vegetation. He is here figured a beautiful Youth, with a pleafing and benign 
Afpecft, and feems to glide on, with the eafieft, gentleft Motion; he is the only one of thefe Figures 
reprefented without a Tunic or Veft ; he is indeed entirely naked except his loofe Mantle, the fkirt 
of which is filled with Flowers. 



Monf. Lc Roy defcribes this Wind as follows : * Zephyros, ou 
■ le Vent d'Oucft, &c. eft reprefente en jcune homme, Veftomac 
« et lesjambes nues, portant des fieurs dans le devant de fon Manteau ; 
« ce qui exprime, apparemment, que ce Vent eft doux a Athenes, & 
1 favourable aux fleurs.' 



Spon tells us: f Zephyrus, &c. eft le Vent d'Occident, Oueft ou 
* Ponente, il eft jeune, et a Veftomac et la jambe ct nud. II prefente 
c des fleurs dans le devant de fon Manteau, &c. Auffi eft-cc un vent 
' doux & agreable, qui eft ami des fleurs,' &c. 



But when thefe Gentlemen fay, the Stomach and Legs of Zephyrus are naked, they do not duly ex- 
prefs that he has neither Tunic nor Veft, and that he is quite naked except his loofe Mantle. 

PLATE XIX. 

Sciron, the North- Weft Wind ; the dryeft which blows at Athens. This Wind is extremely cold in 
Winter, but in the Summer is fcorching, violent, and accompanied with fierce and frequent Lightnings; 
it does great Mifchief to all vegetable Productions, and affefts the Health of the Inhabitants. There is 
an Aire of Languor in the Countenance of this Figure. His upper Tunic is like that of Boreas, very 
fhort and has Sleeves which reach to his Wrift ; the Vafe he holds is of a form very different from 
the Water- Jar in the Hands of Notus, which would indeed be a very improper Symbol for this dry Wind; 
his Vafe is curioufly wrought, and probably reprefents a brazen Fire-Pot (a); from whence he may be 
fuppofed to fcatter Afhes and burning Coals, expreflive of the drying and fcorching Quality of this 
Wind, and of the frequent Lightnings which attend it. 



Monf. Le Roy fays, that 'Andronicus repefenta Scbiron ou le 
* Nord-Oueft, &c. avec un Manteau & des bottines, parceque ce 
' Vent eft froid; le Vafe plein d'eau qu'il renverfe, exprime pcut etre 
c auffi qu'il eft pluvieux* 



Spon tells us that this Figure of Sciron, € porte de meme que le 
c Vent du Nord, une Vefte & des bottines, mais il a outre cela une 
* Vafe d'eau renverfi d la main: ainfi il falloit que ce Vent de Nord- 
1 Oueft ou Maefiro fut pluvieux a Athenes,' &c. 



That is, they fuppofe Sciron to have a Water- Pot in his Hand, and to be a rainy Wind; which muft 
be a Miftake, becaufe it never rains at Athens with a North-Weft Wind. Monf. Le Roy defcribing the 
Drefs of this Figure, differs from Spon; for inftead of a Veft and Bufkins, he gives him a Mantle, 
and Bufkins; * becaufej fays he, • this Wind is cold. 3 But this Conclufion from the Drefs he has given 
Sciron, does not feem to be juft ; for the South and South- Eaft Winds are likewife figured each of 
them with a Mantle and Bufkins. They are notwithftanding, two of the moft fultry Winds that blow 
there. 

Thus much for Monf. Le Roy's Defcription of the Winds : in which it muft be obferved, that his 
exacft Agreement with Wheler and Spon, in fo many of their peculiar Omiffions and Errors, and even 
in their turn of Expreffion, is fomewhat marvellous. In one point however, he exprefsly contradicts 
thofe Gentlemen, for he fays, ■ the Sculpture of thefe Figures is very indifferent' Does this fatisfy his 
Readers Curiofity ? or excufe his NeglecT: of making accurate Prints from thefe Figures, which are really 
excellent for their Sculpture, and the Characters of their Heads are admirable. They are moreover 
iingularly curious for the fubjects they reprefent. 

Monf. Le Roy in the firft Part of his Book, has given a Defcription of this Building accompanied 
with a View of it in its prefent State ; and in his fecond Part, he has given two Plates which exhibit 
the Roof, the Elevation, the Plan and the SecYion of this Building. 

[aO "Er» H dyU1<t, 4} f* ipr^sr aV0 f axa f tfpttttni "There areMewiJeVafet {b) La Sculpture meme de fes Figures eft tres mediocre, quoique MM. 

in which they carry burning Coals. Jul. Poll. Onom. Book VI. 89. See like- Spon & Wheler en parlent differemment. Even the Sculpture of its Bgures 

wife Hefychius on the Word Tliewoc. which he fays is the name of the Vafe is very middling, altho' MM. Spon and Wheler talk differently of it. Monf. Le 

in which they carry Fire. Jul. Poll, feems to call the fame Vcffel U^wvw. Roy, P. I. Page 27. 
Book X. 104. 



M 



In 



24 



Of the Octogon Tower of dndronicus Cynhejles. 



In his View of it arc fcen three of the Figures reprefenting the Winds ; here we fhall find, that 
his Delineations of them are as inaccurate, as his Defcriptions. That Figure which appears in 
Front, PL XI V. he informs us, reprefents Sciron or the North-Weft Wind; in this the uppermoft Veft 
with Sleeves is omitted, and of Confequence the Arms are naked; befides this, the Pofition of the Legs is 
changed, and an Arm is added which is not in the Original. On the right Hand of this Figure, fays 
Monf. Le Roy, is Zephyrus, and on the left Boreas: Zephyrus, he tells us in his Defcription, is a young 
Man with his Stomach and Legs naked, carrying Flowers in his Mantle : but in this View, he has re- 
prefented him with a venerable Beard, clothed in a Veft and without his Mantle ; when in the Original 
he has a Mantle and no Veft. The Figure of Boreas like the former bears little Refemblance to the 
Original ; the Pofition of the Head, the Legs and the Arms, are very different from it ; he has more- 
over omitted his Conch-Shell, his uppermoft Veft, and his Mantle, 

On the Cymatium of the Cornice, human Faces are placed by Monf. Le Roy; thefe he fuppofes rc- 
prefent the twenty-four Winds into which the Romans divided their Compafs. As they are very en- 
tire, it might eafily have been difcovered that they are not the Heads of Men, but of Lions; and that 
they only ferve for Spouts. 

The Lines drawn in his View to reprefent the Sun-Dials, greatly refemble the little flight Prints in 
Wheler's and Spoil's Voyages; but they give no idea of the Original. 

On the right Hand of the Tower, Monf. Le Roy has introduced the Houfe which we built in this 
Place, that which we found ftanding here having been demolifhed by us, in order to copy the Figures 
of Libs and Notus\ this Houfe he has reprefented with due Exactnefs. On that fide of it which 
faces the Tower, is the little Window which we made, purpofely to give future Travellers, a diftinci 
View of thofe Figures; this he has likewife expreffed with fufficient Accuracy, but has not availed 
himfelf of it, to View and deferibe thefe Figures. 

In the fecond Part of Monf. Le Roy's Book, there are two Plates which relate to this Octogon 
Tower; that numbered XXVH, exhibits the Roof and the Elevation; that numbered XXVIII, the 
Plan and Section. His Plan of the Roof is terminated by Lines which form an O&ogon, and re- 
prefent the extreme Projection of the Cymatium on which the Lion's Heads are placed. Now, the 
Space between this Octogon and the Bafe of the Pyramidal Roof is in Monf. Le Roy's Reprefentation 
one Plane; but in the Original it is compofed of eight Planes; and the Interferons of thefe Planes 
form eight Angles, each of which lies perpendicularly over one of the Angles of the Octogon Tower. 
The Edge which is raifed on the Extremity of thefe Planes, to hinder the Rain-Water from running off 
alike in every part; and the Perforations made in it, to carry that Water thro' the Lion's Mouths, are 
unnoticed by him. The Bafe of the Pyramidal Roof is a Polygon of twenty-four Sides, exactly as 
Monf. Le Roy has made it; but his Difpofitiori of thofe Sides is wrong, for in the Original, three of 
them entire are placed over each Face of the Octogon; whereas he has placed two whole Sides, and two 
half Sides in thofe Spaces; fo that the Angles fall where the middle of the Sides fhould be, and of 
confequence the Middle of his Sides where the Angles fhould be; and if Lines are drawn from the 
Center of the Polygon, thro' thofe Angles fet in their original Pofition, they will bifTect the Sides of 
Monf. Le Roy's Polygon, as they will likewife the Angles at the Center of it; and not one of thofe 
Lines fo drawn, will tend to any Point of Monf. Le Roy's imaginary Compafs. His Conjecture there- 
fore concerning the twenty-four Winds is without Foundation ; and the Facts which he has alledged in 
Support of this Conjecture, do, when truly reprefented, abfolutely deftroy it. 

He has made the Faces of his Pyramidal Roof quite plain, altho' in the Original they are each divided 
into five Parts imitating Tiles. He has omitted the Cavity at the Top of the Roof, and has fupplied 
its place with a large round Stone, which is not there, and for which he has no Authority. He has not 
given the Meafures of any part of this Roof. 

It 



Of the Octogon Tower of Andronicm Cyrrheftes. 



2 5 



It now remains to confider his Plan, Elevation and Section of this Building; in thefe, the Omiffions 
feem to claim particular Notice; they are as follows : i. The three Steps which form the Bafis of this 
Building. 2. The Door-way under the Figure of Sciron, altho' it is obferved by Spon (a). 3. The 
Antae and the Columns before the Doors. 4. The additional round Building under the Figure of Notos. 
5. The Moulding immediately above the Steps or Bafis of the Building. 6. The little Apertures or 
Windows, which are fituated over the Figures of the Winds; there is one of them on each Face of the 
O&ogon. 7. He has omitted the Divifion of the Roof into Tiles. 8. He has omitted the Sun-Dials. 
9. The Step by which you defcend to the infide Pavement. 10. He has not expreffed the different 
Thicknefs of the Wall above and below the denticulated Cornice. 1 1. He has omitted the Cavities and 
Channels on the Pavement, altho' he found the Pavement cleared at our Expence, from the Rubbifh 
which had formerly covered it, and altho' a Trap-Door was left in the new Flooring, purpofely to ac- 
commodate Travellers with a View of thefe Channels and Cavities. 1 2. He has omitted the lower Cor- 
nice on the Infide of this Building. To thefe may be added, that he has hot given any proper Profile of 
the Mouldings, nor indeed the particular Defign of any Part which might enable his Reader to judge 
with Precifion, on the Merits of this curious Building. 

Concerning his meafures it may be faid that they are in general very inaccurate; for Inftance, the 
circular Fafcia which fuftains the fmall fluted Columns on the Infide of this Building, is in the original 
1 Foot o, T 8 A Inch, to this he affigns only 9 Inches of the Parifian Foot, which is about 9 f Inches of the 
Englifh Foot; his Meafure is therefore more than 3 Inches too fmall. The Height of the Entabla- 
ture which is fupported by thofe fmall fluted Columns, meafures 1 Foot 9 Inches in the Original; to 
this he has given only 7 Inches of the Parifian Foot, or he makes it equal to about 7 1 Inches of the En- 
glifh Foot; that is, he has made it 1 Foot 1 i Inch too fmall. The Space from the Top of the exterior 
Cymatium on which the Lions Heads are placed, to the Bottom of the Moulding immediately under the 
Figures of the Winds, is in the Original 8 Foot 4 ^U Inches to this Space Monf. Le Roy has afligned, 
only 5 Feet 6 Inches 9 Lines Parifian Meafure, equal to 5 Feet 1 1 Inches Englifh Meafure, which is 
a Feet 5 i Inches too fmall, and yet in this fpace he has marked the lower Moulding 4 4- Inches too 
large* 



(a) Elle ne recoit de jour que par deux Portes, dont il y en a une qui eft 
muiee. This Building receives no light except by two Doors, one ef which is 



walled up. Spon's Voyage, Vol. II. Page 176, the laft Line. See alfo Page 
354, Line 4, of the fame Volume. 




Chap: III PJ: II. 




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CHAPTER IV. 

Of the Choragic Monument of Lyficrates^ commonly called the 

Lanthorn of Demofthenes. 

TH E modern Athenians call this Edifice to Phanari tou Demoftheneos, or the Lanthorn of De- 
mofthenes, and the vulgar Story which fays, it was built by that great Orator, for a place of 
retirement and ftudy, is ftill as current at Athens as it was In the time of Wheler and Spon; 
but like many other popular Traditions, it is too abfurd to deferve a ferious refutation. 

Wheler and Spon have defcribed this Building (a). They are the firft Authors who have taken no- 
tice of the Infcription upon it, from the tenour of which they conclude, that this building was erefted 
in honour of the feveral Perfons mentioned in the Infcription; and that it was the Monument of a Vic- 
tory they had obtained in one of the public Shews or Games (b). 

Their opinion will be confirmed in the courfe of the prefent Chapter, and the purpofe which this 
Monument was defigned to anfwer, will be farther explained; for it appears upon a diligent examina- 
tion, that befides recording the names of the Vi6lors, it likewife fupported a Tripod (V) which they had 
contended for, and had won in thefe Games. It appears alfo that neither the Building itfelf, nor the 
Sculpture which adorns the Frize, have any relation to Hercules; tho' all the writers who have hitherto 
defcribed them, imagine they had: neither do they relate to Athletic Combats of any Species. This 
Sculpture reprefents one of the Adventures of Bacchus; and the Vi&ory which this Monument cele- 
brates, was not obtained in the Stadium, but in the Theatre, 

This Monument of Antiquity, which is exquifitely wrought, ftands near the eaftern end of the Acro- 
polis and is partly enclofed in the Hofpitium of the Capuchins. It is compofed of three diftin6l parts. 
Firft, a quadrangular Bafement: fecondly, a circular Colonnade, the intercolumniations of which were 
entirely clofed up ; and thirdly, a Tholus or Cupola with the Ornament which is placed on it. 



(a) Wheler's journey to Greece, page 397. Voyage de Spon, Tome II. 
P. 172. 

* (b) Thefe Games were of two Species, Gymnaftic and Scenic ; the firft 
confifted of athletic exercifes, as racing, wreftling, leaping, and other feats 
of bodily ftrength, agility and addrefs. But the fecond were for polite ac- 
complifhments, or works of genius and imagination, principally mufical com- 
pofitions and theatric reprefentations. The firft were taught in the Gym- 
nafium, but were exhibited in the Stadium. The fecond were taught in the 
Choragium, and on the folemn occafion of a feftival were performed in the 
Theatre or the Odeum. The Perfon at whofe expence the athletic games 
were performed, was called a Gymnafiarch, and he that gave the mufical 
games, was called a Choragus. 

Twv H 'Kywvwv, oi /*Jv yuptxoi, 0! Si xaWftevo* (rxijvjxoi, oVo^a<rSer«v av Aioyv<rta- 
xo/ re, x, fwixnxoi, &c. %woia. **» r " v l** v rrdhov. *<"* s * S*a7f ov. 

Of thefe Games fome are Gymnaftic, but thofe which are called Scenic, may be 
mmed likewife Dionyfian and Mufical, &c. The Places of exhibition are, for 



thefirfl, the Stadium, for the fecond, the Theatre. Jull. Pol. Onom. Book III. 
Chap. 30. 

In the greater Dionyfia, or Feftival of Bacchus, which was celebrated with 
conliderable Expences, a Choragus was appointed for each Tribe. 

Tots (JLvydkoif Aiovvffiotf 'AvfcjTjfiwVfc' pyyoe, iths.ov& yevc^'iv^e Satdrr^e, tJc 
XH r iY 0i * xa V>)f <pv\rjs xx9$raro. 

(c) A Tripod was frequently the Prize contended for in the theatric or 
mufical Games which were celebrated in honor of Bacchus. Kxi vi wxijr'fio* 
\y Aiovvo-ov Tf Move. And a Tripod is the ViHors prize in the feftival of Bacchus. 
Athenaeus Deipnofoph. Book II. Page 37. It was lixewife bellowed on the 
Vidtor in the circular Chorus. Tlvfoov. Ug\v 'hitoWwvos d^vr.riv vito IIe»<r«n*f drov, 
yeyovle, tie <? ro 'V TfiiroSas tr,'9e<rav, oi rZ xuxX,'» ^ppS wt*<T%Yrie rd 0apy»Aia. 
Pythium, a Temple of Apollo at Athens, built by Pififtratus, in which thofc who on 
the Thargelian Feflival, in honor of Apollo, were Viclors in the circular Chorus, 
placed their Tripods. Suidas on the word Uvhov. 



M 



There 



28 



The Choragic Monument of Lyficrates. 



There is no kind of Entrance or Aperture in the quadrangular Bafement; it is entirely clofed on 
every Side. On breaking through one of the Sides, it was found however not to be quite folid. But 
the void fpace is fo fmall and fo irregular, that a Man can hardly ftand upright in it. 

This Bafement fuppbrts the circular Colonnade, which was conftrudled in the following manner, fix 
equal Pannels of white Marble placed contiguous to each other, on a circular Plan, formed a continued 
cylindrical Wall; which of courfe was divided, from Top to Bottom, into fix equal Parts, by the Junc- 
tures of the Pannels. On the whole length of each Juncture was cut a femi-circular Groove, in which 
a Corinthian Column was fitted with great exacftnefs, and efFe&ually concealed the Jun&ures of the Pan- 
nels. Thefe Columns projected fomewhat more than half their Diameters from the Surface of the cylin- 
drical Wall, and the Wall entirely clofed up the Intercolumniation. Over this was placed the Entabla- 
ture, and the Cupola, in neither of which any Aperture was made, fo that there was no admiflion to 
the Infide of this Monument, and it was quite dark. It is befides, only 5 Feet 1 1 Inches and a half in 
the clear, and therefore, was never intended for a Habitation, or even a Repofitory of any kind. 

An Entrance however has been fince forced into it, by breaking through one of the Pannels; probably 
in Expe&ation of finding Treafures here. For in thefe Countries fuch barbarifm reigns at prefent, every 
ancient Building which is beautiful, or great, beyond the Conception of the prefent Inhabitants; is always 
fuppo r ed by them to be the Work of Magic, and the Repofitory of hidden Treafures. At prefent three 
of the Marble Pannels are deftroyed; their places are fupplied by a Door, and two Brick- Walls, and 
it is converted into a Clofet. 

It mould be obferved that two Tripods with Handles to them, are wrought in Baflb-Relievo on each 
of the three Pannels which flill remain. They are perhaps of the Species, which Homer and Hefiod 
defcribe by the name of r s fofe *,Ya>We f , or eared Tripods. 

The Architrave an* Frize of this circular Colonnade are both formed of only one Block of Marble. 
On the Architrave is cut the following Infcription: 

ATSIKPATHS AT£10EJAOr KIKTNETE EXOPHrHI,(a) 
AKAMANTIS nAlAHN ENIKA 9EX1N HTAEI 
ATSIAAHE A0HNAIO2 EAIAASKE ETAINET02 HPXE 

From this we may conclude, that on fome Solemn Fefiival which was celebrated with Games and 
Plays, Lyficrates of Kikyna, a Demos or Borough Town of the Tribe of Akamantis, did on behalf of 
his Tribe, but at his own expence, exhibit a Mufical or Theatrical Entertainment; in which the Boys 
of the Tribe of Akamantis obtained the Viaory : that in memory of their Vi&ory this Monument was 
ere&ed; and the Name of the Perfon at whofe Expence the Entertainment was exhibited, of the 
Tribe that gained the Prize, of the Mufician who accompanied the Performers, and of the Compofer 
of the Piece, are all recorded on it; to thefe the Name of the annual Archon is likewife added, in 
whofe Year of Magiflracy all this was tranfa&ed. From which laft Circumftance it appears, that this 
Building was ereaed above 330 Years before the Chriftian .Era ; in the Time of Demofthenes, Apelles, 
Lyfippus, and Alexander the Great. 



(a) Lyficrates of Xikyna, the Son of Lyfttheides, was Choragus, [or gave the 
Chorus at his own Expence.] 

The Tribe of Akamantis obtained the Vittory in the Chorus of Boys. Theon was 
the Performer on the Flute. 

Lyjiades an Athenian was the Teacher of the Chorus. Evaenetus was Archon. 

That the Games in which this Victory was obtained, were not Athletic 
Combats, but Theatric or mufical Entertainments, is evident from the fol- 
lowing PafTage of Plutarch, in which he cites an Infcription nearly refem- 
bling that on the Lanthorn of Demofthenes ; and fays it was on a Tablet 
dedicated by Themiftocles, on occafion of his having exhibited a Tragedy, 



when he was Choragus ; with which he won the Prize from his Antagonifts. 

'Ev/xijere ft £ %o W a* rpay«,&7* pe/aA^v fa r Ve mtovSnr ^ pXtmp'w rS dywvos 
exovT®*- «f Wvaxa r»s v/xij; avians roi avrh i>rrty?a<pr t v '{xovra ©EMI2T0KAHS 
4>PEAPI02 EXOPHrEI. *PTNIX02 EAIAA^KEN AAEIMANT02 HPXEN. 

« Being a Choragus in the Exhibition of Tragedies he obtained the Viaory from 
' his Antagonifts, at a time when great Indujlry and Magnificence were di [played 
1 in thefe Games; and he dedicated a Tablet of the Ficlory with this Infcription on 
<it, THEMISTOCLES THE PHREARIAN WAS CHOR/fGUS. 
' PHRTNICHUS MADE THE PLAT. ADIMANTUS WAS AR- 
• CHON. Plutarch in the Life of Themiftocles. 

Round 



The Choragic Monument of Lyficrates. 



ch.ffifco.cnt of the FwtotTjfS^ T i" • Ma " ifeftati ° n of his divinity, the 

Bafib-Relievo, with ^^^"^ -***■* '" «*** & ** 

The Cornice which is otherwife very fimple, is crowned with a fort of Vitruvian Scrol inftead of a 
Cymatmm. It „ remarkable, that no Cornice of an ancient Building actually exiftma nd ,W 1 f- 
th, ; manner, has hitherto been pubhfhed; vet Temples crowned with thSn^'^ fi^n t f '" 
prefented on Medals; and there U(4) an Example much idemblingit.^nXL'^^f."- 
wh.ch adorn a celebrated Manufc, ipt of Virgil, prefcrved in the Vatican L bTy 7 C Th Con £" ^ 
pofcd of fevera, pieces of Marble; they are boL together by the C^J^^SS «S 

The outfide of the Cupola is wrought with much Delicacy; it imitates a Thatch or Covering of 
Laurel Leaves; th.s is likewife edged with a Vitruvian Scrol, and enriched with other ^ Orname, The 

fcntTdTp at e eTx P of 5 W ""* * * ** "-* ^^ ° f ™** « Sc- 
lented in Plate IX. of this Chapter; and is defaibed in the Explanation of that Plate It will be 

oSS ^f^'K^ e ° niameilt that is now loft ' was » " accd ' * 

It was the Form of the upper Surface of the Flower, and principally indeed, the Difpofition of four 
remarkable Cavu.es m it which firft led to this Difcovery. Three of them, are Jt on the th 
pr.nc.pa, Protons of the u per Surface, their Difpofition is that of the Angles of an equila tra 
Triangle; m thefe the Feet of the 1 ripod were probably fixed. In the fourth Cavity, which'is much 
the Iargeft, and is m the Center of this upper Surface, a Ballifter was in all likelyhood inferted • its Ufe 
was to fopport the Tripod, and to give it that Stability which its Situation required. 

Every Body knows, that the Games and Plavs which the ancient Grecians exhibited, at the Celebra- 
tion of their greater Feffivals, were chiefly Athletic Exercifes, and Theatric or Mufical Performances- 
and that thefe made a very confutable, eflential, and fplendid Part of the Solemnity. In order 
therefore, to engage a greater number of Competitors, and to excite their Emulation more efiWluallv 
Prizes were allotted to the Vidors; and thefe Prizes were generally exhibited to public View, during 
the Time in which thefe Games were celebrated. 

' In View, amid the Spacious Circle lay (el) 

' The Splendid Gifts, the Prizes of the Day, 

' Aims, on the Ground, and Sacred Tripods glow, 

• With Wreaths and Palms to bind the Vigor's Prow. 

Pitt's Tranflation of Virgil. iEneid. V. v. 140. 

None of thefe Prizes feem to have been in higher Effimation than Tripods, or more frequently the 
Reward of fuperior Force, Addrefs, and Genius. 

Homer, when he defcribes the Games which were celebrated at the Funeral of Patroclus, introduces 
Achilles, proclaiming Tripods as the principal Prizes to be contended for, both by the Charioteers, and 



(a) This Story of Bacchus is told by many Authors, fee the Hymn attri- 
buted to Homer entitled A* owe®* 7} Ar S tai. See alfo Nonnus in his Dionyfiacs, 
Ovid in his Metamorphofes, &c. It is obfervable that this Sculptor has made 
the Scene of Adion on the Sea-Shore, and not on board the Pirates Ship, as 
the Poets have conftantly defcribed it. 

(b) For a Specimen of thefe Medals, fee the Ornament at the End of this 
Chapter. 

(c) They have been engraved and publiflied : the laft Edition, printed in the 
Year 1741, has this Title, AntiquiJJimi Vtrgiliani Codicis Fragmenta & Pifiura, 
ex Eibliotheca Vaticana a Petro Sante Bartholi incifa, &c. The Example 
cited here, is at page 134 of this Edition, and it is the 45th Plate of the firft 
Edition. 



A Fac fimile of this ancient Manufcript was made by Permiflion of Urban 
VIII. at the Defire of Cardinal Maffimi, in whofe Library it was placed. In 
this, not only the form of the Characters is exa&ly imitated, but the original 
Paintings likewife, are diligently copied in Miniature by P.S. Bartoli ; and 
from it the printed Copies, not without confulcrable licenfes indeed, are en- 
graved by that excellent Artift. This curious Book is at prefent in the Library 
of the learned Anthony Afkew, M.D. 

(d) Munera principio ante oculos, circooue locantur 
In medio: facri tripodes, viridefque coronae, 
Et palmae, pretium vi&oribus, -/Eneids, Book V. ver. 109. 

P by 



5° 



The Choragic Monument of Lyficrates. 



by thofc who engaged in Wreftling(a). Pindar celebrates Caftor and Iolaus for their ExceUence in 
the Chariot Race, the naked and the armed Courfe, throwing the Javelin, and tolling the Dncus; 
and he reprefents them adorning their Houfes with Tripods, and other Prizes, which they had won in 
thefe Games(£) Bat Hefiod celebrates his own Vi&ory: he obtained it in the Games which were 
folemnized at Chalcis. On this Occafion, he defcribes himfelf bearing off the Prize Tripod from his 
Competitors in Poetry, and confecrating it to the MufesfY). 

It was the ufual Cuftom, and a very ancient one, for the Vigors to dedicate thefe Tripods to fome 
Divinity, and to place them, either in Temples already built (J), or upon the Top of fome confecrated 
Edifice erected for that purpofe (e) ; thus they participated of the San&ity of the Place, and were fecure 
from Injury and Violence: to have deftroyed or defaced them, had doubtlefs been efteemed an Aft of 
Sacrilege A Tripod thus dedicated, was always accompanied with an Infcription; fo that it became a 
permanent, authentic and public Monument of the Vidtory, and of the Perfon who had obtained it. 

The Tripod feems to have been the peculiar Reward, bellowed by the People of Athens, on that 
Choragus who had exhibited the beft Mufical or Theatrical Entertainment: for we find, thefe kind of 
Tripods had obtained a particular Name from this Cuftom, and were called Choragic Tripods. The 
^4l g of this Prize was attended with confutable Expence (/): each Choragus difburfed the Money 
for the Entertainment he exhibited, but the Vicftor was moreover at the Charge of confecrating the 
Tripod he had won ; and fometimes alfo, of building the Temple on which it was placed (g). 

There were formerly many Edifices or Temples of this Sort in Athens (A), one of them, as Plutarch 
informs us, was built by Nicias within the place confecrated to Bacchus 0; and Paufanias fays, that 
there was a Street leading from the Prytaneum, which took its name from the Number of Tripods in 
it lk\ Me tells us, they were placed on Temples, that they were of Brafs indeed, but on account of 
the Workmanfhip, they merited our attention. 



(a) Iliad XXIII, Verfc 264. 

(/,) Pindar's Ifthinia. Ode I. 

(r) Hefiod Works and Days. Book 2. v. 272. 

(d) Thofe moft ancient Tripods cited by Herodotus, Book V. to prove the 
Cmilitude of the Cadmean Characters, to thofe ufed by the Ionians, were 
dedicated in the Temple of Ifmenian Apollo. One of thefe he attributes to 
Laius, a .great Grandlbn of Cadmus. According to the ufual way of com- 
puting, it is more than three thoufand Years fmce this Dedication. 

(e) Plutarch in the Life of Nicias. 

( f) in one of the orations of Lyfias which is ftill extant, he enumerates his 
public Services ; and among others, the Expences he was at in difcharging the 
Office of Choragus, and confecrating a Tripod. It may pofTibly gratify the 
Curiofity of fome Readers, to fee this Account inferted here. 

■ In the Year that Theopompus was Archon, fays he, I underwent the 

* fcrutiny and was appointed a Choragus in the exhibition of Tragedies, in this 
■ 1 expended 30 Minas [or 125 Pounds Sterling.] Three Months afterwards 
« the Chorus of Men which I provided for the Thargelia [a feftival in honour 
«of Apollo] obtained the Viclory; and in this I laid out two thoufand 
« Drachmas [£83 : 6 : 8]. In the Year that Glaucippus was Archon, it coft 
' me eight hundred Drachmas, [£33 : 6 : 8] for Pyrrhic Dancers, on the great 
« Panathenaean Feftival. Under the fame Archon, I was again a Choragus, 
' and provided a Chorus of Men on the Dionyfia, or Feftivai of Bacchus; here 
' I was Vi&or, and in this Chorum together with the Charge of confecrating 
' my Tripod, I expended five thoufand Drachmas [£208 : 6 : 8], &c. He 
« then fets forth, the Expences and Dangers he fuibined during the feven 

* Years, that he commanded the Triremes, or Ships of War: and fays, that 
' prefently after he returned home, he was ele&ed a Gymnafiarch in the Pro- 

* mcthean Games; in this he was Viaor, and fpent 12 Minas,' &c. Lyfias, 

Pa~e 183. 

This proves, that Mufical and Theatric Entertainments were given by the 
Choragus, arid Athletic Games, by the Gymnafiarch : a particular, which was 
obferved In the beginning of this Chapter. Note (b), Page 27. 

It alfo explains the PafTage in Julius Pollux, where the Choragus, and the 
Gvmnafiarch, are enumerated among thofc who fpend Money in the Service 
of the Public. Jul. Poll. Onomafticon, Vol. I, Page 299. 



An Attic Drachm weighed about 67 Grains of fine Silver; and one Ounce 
of fine Silver, is worth at prefent 6 Shillings 2 Pence. But if we eftimate the 
Attic Silver at only 6 Shillings an Ounce, and the Attic Drachm at fomewhat 
lefs than 67 Grains ; that Drachm will then be worth 10 Pence Englifh. 
. (g) Eiofyxa Sey rwV dva^drcuv avrS xxfl' TJfias r' rt IlaAAa'ftov gv axf07ro'Ae/, 
«•> StfW-ctfW dTtoteSXrplr £ rois XWY 1 * " T-f/irocnv rawtfptw* h Aiovvos yeu S . 
£ y>o;<re ydo voWdm fc<W*«V. « Of his religious Offerings there remained even 
' to our time, in the Acropolis the Statue of Minerva which has lofl its gilding; 
« and in the Place confecrated to Bacchus, the Temple which fupports the Choragic 
« Tripods. For he won the Prize many Times, being a Choragus: Plutarch in 
the Life of Nicias. 

(h) The Church of the Panagia Spiliotiffa, or our Lady of the Grotto, 
was originally a Choragic Monument, as appears evidently from the Infcrip- 
tions on it 5 the two Columns which ftand over it have triangular Capitals, 
and on the Abacus of each Capital are the Veftiges of a Tripod which it 
formerly fuftained. The other Choragic Infcriptions which are ftill extant 
at Athens, are on pieces of Marble which have been Architraves or Frizes 
in Choragic Monuments; that, for In fiance, which makes Part of the Or- 
nament at the beginning of this Chapter, has the Guttae of the Doric Archi- 
trave on it. Spon, who is of Opinion that thefe Infcriptions refer to The- 
atrical Games; and who has fuppofed that this Building is a Monument 
ere&ed in Honour of the Victors; has likewife very juftly obferved, that all 
the Infcriptions of this kind which he found at Athens, are either on Frizes 
or other Stones which have been part of fome Edifice. Spon's Voyage, 
Tome II. Page 174. 
(;') See Note (g) above. 

(k) "E<rli Se o$os dri re Upvlave/a xaXs^vij TofaoSes. *<? s> Si xaAe<n ri %w? iov, 
vao) §ewv is raVo prydhoi, x, <r<p i<riv tyerh**<ri TfiVo^' x«Xxor f«V ffcwjFJ? ^ % a 
udXtg-a Ttsgiixovrss s}ya<r^iva. There is probably an Error in this PafTage of 
Paufanias, where the Copies read, vaoi &ewV is rsVo psydxoi, for it is not 
eafily conceived that any Number of great Temples were built in one Street; 
or that Paufanias, who is fo minute a Defcriber, mould not have diftinguifhed 
fuch Temples by their Names: if thefe brazen Tripods were curioufly wrought, 
it is plain that the beauty of their Work would be loft, if they were placed 
upon great Temples. 

That 






The Choragic Monument of Lyficrates. 



3 1 

That the Building ufually called the Lanthorn of Demofthenes was of this Sort, the particulars al- 
ready recited feem to evince. The three principal Projections, which gave a triangular Form to the 
upper Surface of the Flower, and the Number and Difpofition of the Cavities fn it, which feem 
fo aptlv inted to rece ve the Feet of a Tripod, muft immediately fugged this Opinion to an, oZ 
who recoils, that Tripods were fometimes placed on Temples. The Tripods rep'refented on aU the 
Pannels whuch are not dearoyed; and the Infcription, fo exaftly like thofe which were infcribed on 
Chorag.c Tnpods [a], do greatly confirm this Opinion : befides all which, we may add, that as this 
Building was entirely clofed all round, it feems that no other Ufe can with any Shew of probability be 
ailigned to it, J 

We may therefore conclude, that this Building fupported the Choragic Tripod of Lyficrates; and we 
may fuppofe that the Sculpture on it, reprefents the Subjecl of the Theatric or Mufical Entertainment 
which was exhibited at his Expence by the Chorus of Boys. If we further fuppofe, that thefe Games' 
were celebrated during the Dionyfia, or Feflivals in Honor of Bacchus, both the Subject of the Sculp- 
ture, and the Cuftom of giving Tripods particularly to the Vi&ors in thofe Games[>l will concur to 
fupport the Conjecture. 

PLATE I. 

A View of the Choragic Monument of Lyficrates in its prefent Condition, taken from the farther 
End of the Garden belonging to the Hofpitium of the Capuchins. More than half this Monument is 
walled up, fo that of the fix Columns which form the circular Colonnade, only two and a half appear 
on the outfide of the Capuchin's Houfe, and but two and a half of the Intercolumniations. On either 
Side of the Frize are reprefented the Holes, which it was neceflkry to make, in order to copy the 
Sculptures and the Infcription which the Walls concealed. The Door on the left Hand, which has 
the French Arms over it, leads into the Chappel. The Figure reprefents the French Capuchin fitting 
in his Garden ; the Surface of which is raifed about eleven Feet above the ancient Pavement, and of 
confequerice fo much of the Bafement of this Monument is hid, by the Earth accumulated on this 
Side of it: on the Side next the Street about three Feet lefs of this Bafement is concealed. 

PLATE II. 

The Plan. In this the fhaded Part ihews what remains ftanding, and the dotted Tart fhews the 
Places of three Pannels that are wanting. The outer halves of the Columns are fluted, but the 
inner halves are plain, and are half an Inch lefs in Diameter than the outer halves: from whence it is 
evident, that the Spaces between the Columns were all of them originally filled with Pannels. 

PLATE III. 

The Elevation of this Building; reflored as far as the Remains found on the Spot will authorize, 
and no farther. 

PLATE IV. 

The Section, In this the thicknefs of the Solid Parts of the Building are feen ; and the order of the 
Mafonry is marked by tranfverfe Lines drawn acrofs thofe Parts. The four loweft Orders of Stone be- 
longing to the Bafement, which are in the form of Steps, and the uppermoft with a fmall Moulding 
cut on it, which crowns the Bafement, feem to be each one Block. Here the form and dimenfions of 
the Cavity within this Bafement is likewife fhewn. 

The Bafis of the circular Colonnade is one Piece of Marble, and the Shaft of each Column is like- 
wife of one Piece. 



(a) ''On yUijs dvaQwala %0/njyjxa* fpliroSas iv AiovoVa Ttarfaiifev, o? *, xafl' ijjw,*? 

'Seixvwro, roiavryv \idy§xfiiY 8ia<rwgovrec, ANTIOXI2 ENIKA API^TEIAH^ 

EXOPHrEI APXEXTPATOS EAIAA2KE. That he left behind him, Offerings 

for Ficlory, Choragic Tripods, dedicated in the Temple of Bacchus, which are 

Jhewn wen in our time, with this Infcription on them, THE TRIBE OF AN- 



TIOCHIS OBTAINED THE VICTORY, ARISTIDES WAS CHOR- 
JGUS, A RCHE STRATUS COMPOSED THE PIECE. Plut. in 
Ariftidcs. 

(I) Kai ro mipn^iov iv Aiovvtrs Tp iVa* . And a Tripod is the Vifior's Prize in the 
Fejlivals of Bacchus. Athcneus Deipnof. Page %%. 

Q it, 



32 The Choragic Monument of Lyjtcrates. 

The Junctures of the Pannels are marked as they appear on the infide of the cylindrical Wall. A 
Portion of each Capital appears within this Building, in the manner reprefented here, but, until a way 
was forced thro' the Pannels, it could not be feen; and therefore doubtlefs it is, that we find the Capi- 
tals are only blocked out on this Side, while that external Part of them which was always expofed to 
View, is finifhed with the greateft delicacy. The Architrave together with the Frize are formed out of 
one entire Block of Marble; but the Cornice is of feveral pieces, bound fecurely in their places by the 
Cupola which is of one Block only. The lower Part of the Flower is formed of the fame Block out 
of which the Cupola is cut; the upper Part is a feparate Piece. The junctures are all marked by 
tranfverfe Lines, and by confulting the Print, will be readily difcovered, without any further Reference 
or Explanation. 

PLATE V. 

The Eafe of the Column; with the circular Zoccolos or fteps which are immediately above the qua- 
drangular Bafement, and form the Bafis of the circular Colonnade. Under this are the Mouldings which 
crown the quadrangular Bafement; the uppermoft is an Ovolo without a Fillet. It is remarkable, 
that the lowed of the circular Steps projects fomewhat beyond the Corona of the Bafement, and that 
the Curves made ufe of to profile the Mouldings of this Building, are elliptical Curves, and not Seg- 
ments of Circles. 

PLATE VI. 

The external Face of the Capital, with the Entablature, and half one of the Tripods which are 
wrought on the upper part of the Marble Pannels already mentioned. In this, part of the Volutes 
and of the Flower on the Abacus are reftored, but it is from the moft diligent Obfervation of the 
remains of thefe Ornaments, that the Reftoration has been made: as fix of thefe Capitals are ftill re- 
maining, and as they arc not all equally ruined, nor always in the fame places, it is eafy to conceive 
that they mutually helped to reftore each other. The different remains were collated fo carefully, 
that we may affirm this Capital has fcarce a line, for which we have not the beft authority. Among 
the many peculiarities of this Angular Edifice, the manner of fluting the Columns defcrves fome at- 
tention; the lower extremities of thefe r lutings defcend below their ufual Limits, and are cut into 
the Apophyses or Scape of the Column ; and the upper Extremities terminate in the form of Leaves. 
The annu'ar Channel immediately above them, which divides the Shaft of the Column from the Ca- 
pital, was probably filled with an Aftrag <1, or Cc llarino of bronze. 

P L A T E VII. 

1 he Plan reveifed, and the Sections of the Capital; with the Elevation of half the unfinifhed part 
of the Capital. 

Fig. i. The Plan reverfed. It is divided into two equal Farts by the Line AB. The Parts marked 
C, and D, are of the unfinifhed half of the Capital; here C is the Plan, of an horizontal Seftion thro' 
the Point C, of Fig. a. and D, is the Plan of an horizontal Section thro' the Point D, likewife in Fig. 
2. The Farts marked E,F,G,H, are of the finifhed Part of the Capital, or that which appeared on the 
outfide of the Building. E, reprefents part of an horizontal Section thro' the Point E, of Fig. 4, and 
explains the manner in which the upper Part of the fluting of the Column terminates. F, reprefents 
the Part of an horizontal Section, thro' the Point F, Fig. 4. and explains the manner in which the 
lower range of Leaves in this Capital, are wrought and difpofed. G, the Plan of an horizontal Section 
thro' the Point O, of Fig. 4. This explains the manner of difpofing the Voluie, and of placing the 
Flower on the Abacus. H, is a Section likewife thro' the Point G, Fig. 4, fhewing the naked Campana 
of the Capital. 



Fig. 



The Ckoragic Monument of Lyjicrates. 



33 



Fig. 2. An Elevation of half the internal unfinished Face of the Capital. 

Fig. 3. A perpendicular Section thro' the middle of the unfinilhed Part of the Capital 

Fig. 4. A perpendicular Sedtion, thro' the middle of the exterior or finilhed Part of the Capital. 

PLATE VIII. 

,. *! fr *' A , c l uartcr of the u PP er S «rface of the Tholus or Cupola. A, one of the three Helices, Cau- 
hcoh or Scrols, which divide this Cupola into three equal Parts; on the Foot of this Scrol, is a circular 
Cavity marked B, in which fome Ornament was originally fixed ; it was probably of Bronze, but is 
now dettroyed. 

Fig. a. A Section of the Cupola, made on the Line CD of the foregoing Figure. A, is the Helix 
or Scrol, marked likewife A in the foregoing Figure. The dotted curve Line at B, thews the Depth 
of the Cavity, which is marked B, in the foregoing Figure. 

Fig. 3. A Sedion of Part of the Cupola on the Line E F. Fig. 1. It mews the Profile of the Leaves 
marked E, and F, in Fig. 1, and of the two intermediate Ranges. Obferve the Range of Leaves which 
in Fig. 1, meafures 3, 1, where one darker and one lighter Leaf are placed alternately ; thofe darker 
Leaves are here reprefented by that marked 2, 1, and the lighter, by that marked 6, in this Figure. 

Fig. 4. A Seftion of the Helix or Scrol marked A in Fig. 1, and 2. This Seaion is made thro' the 
Line a, b. Fig. 2. 

Fig. 5 . Reprefents the remains of the Vitruvian Scrols. Note, that in Fig. 1, the two Scrols on the 
left Hand are reprefented cut thro' by an horizontal Section, to fhew the Projections of the different Parts 
of its Face. 

PLATE IX. 

Fig. 1. The Flower on the Top of the Tholus or Cupola. A, an extremity of the Foliage which is 
fo ruined as not to be intelligible. B the juncture of the uppermoft Stone of the Flower with that 
which forms the Cupola and the lower part of the Flower. 

Fig. 2. The Plan of the upper Surface of the Flower. A, A, A, the Cavities wherein, as it is al- 
ready fuggefted, the Feet of a Tripod were originally fixed. B, the central Cavity wherein the Ballifter 
was inferted, which effectually fecured the Tripod in its place. The dotted Line round this central 
Cavity is an horizontal Se6tion made thro' the uppermoft range of Foliage, at the Points E,F, Fig. i. 
C,C,C, the leffer Projections of the upper Surface of the Flower, which are fo much ruined, that the 
exact Form of thofe Volutes cannot be diftinguifhed. 

Fig. 3. A Perpendicular Section of the Top of the Flower, made thro' the Line A,B, C, of the 
preceding Figure, to fhew the Depths of the Cavities at A and B, in the preceding Figure. 

The XVII Plates which follow, are copied from the Sculpture on the Frize of this Building, which 
reprefents the ftory of Bacchus and the Tyrrhenian Pyrates. The firfl: of thefe, Plate X. is the Figure 
of Bacchus with his Tyger. His Form is beautiful and delicate, and his Countenance is exactly that 
which Ovid has given to this Divinity (#), This Figure is placed directly over the Infcription on the 
Architrave, and fronts nearly due Eaft. 

On either Side of Bacchus, (fee Plate XI, and XXVI,) fits a Faun, one of his Attendants ; and by 
them fland two others, each with a Cup in one Hand, and a Pitcher in the other: they have two large 
Vafes by them, and they feem to be very diligent, in the Office of adminiftring Wine to Bacchus, and 
his Train; which is wholly compofed of this imaginary Species of beings. They are however of different 



(*) 



tu formofiffimus alto 



Confpiceris coelo: tibi, cum fine cornibus adftas, 
Virgineura Caput eft Lib. iv. v. 17. 



In Heaven thoujhin'jl with afuperior Grace ; 
Conceal thy Horns, and 'tis a Virgin's Face. — 



R 



Garth's Ovid, 

Ages, 



34 The Choragic Monument of Lyjicrates.' 

>\ges, and are generally engaged in chaftifing the Pirates; three of whom are here reprefented, in the 
Inftant of their Transformation inta Dolphins. See Plates XVI, XIX and XXII. The whole procefs 
of this Transformation is fhewn by Pirates in different Attitudes and Circumftances. One of them is 
juft knocked down; another has his Hands tyed behind him; others are beaten and tormented in va- 
rious manners ; and others are reprefented, leaping into the Sea, at which inflant, their change into 
Dolphins commences. The Figure, Plate XVIII, which has been miftaken for a Hercules Oetaeus, re- 
prefents one of the Pirates fitting on a Rock by the Sea-fide; Defpair is in his Face; his Arms are bound 
behind him by a Cord, which changes into a Serpent of enormous length, and feizes on his Shoulder, 
Nonnus in his Dionyfiacs, recounting this Adventure of Bacchus, introduces a Transformation fimilar 
to this; he makes the Cables, and the Streamer waving from the Yard-Arm of the Pirates Ship, change 
into terrible Serpents (a). The coiling of a Cable, and the Play of a Streamer agitated by the Wind, 
feem, probably enough, to have furnifhed the Hint for this Metamorphofis. 

In the Ornament at the beginning of this Chapter, is an exacT: Copy of a Choragic Infcription which 
has been already publifhed by Wheler, Spon and others. It ftill remains over the Gate of the Bazar 
in the Place where thofe Gentlemen faw it; but as no one has given the form of the Stone, or 
defcribed thofe Guttse or Drops on it which prove it to be a Doric Architrave, the Reader perhaps, will 
not be difpleafed to fee it again in this Place. It was probably part of one of thofe little Temples al- 
ready mentioned, which were built purpofely to fupport a Choragic Tripod. The Medal with Apollo's 
Head on one Side, and with an Owl, a Lyre, and three Flutes on the other, has not been publifhed 
before ; both that, and the reverfe of another Medal which has a Tripod reprefented on it, are intro- 
duced in this Ornament, on a fuppofition, that they may poffibly have fome relation to Mufical or 
Theatrical Entertainments. 

The Ornament at the end of this Chapter, is an attempt to reftore the upper part of this Building, 
and to explain the manner in which the Tripod was originally placed on it. The Dolphins relate to the 
Story on the Frize, and are fuppofed to have been fixed here, by means of the Cavity marked B, in 
Plate VIII. Fig. i, and a. The Medals introduced in this Ornament, are defigned to fhew, that the 
Vitruvian Scrol was fometimes ufed to decorate the Tops of Cornices. That on the left Hand, is a 
Medal of Marcus Aurelius. That on the right is of the Emperor Philip (b). 

Monf. Le Roy has not been more accurate in the View he has given of this Building, than in thofe 
which are already animadverted on, in the preceding Chapters. For inftance, he has made four Co- 
lumns appear on the outfide of the Capuchin's Houfe; when he mould have reprefented only two 
Columns, and one half Column in that fituation; and he has given only two Legs to the Tripods, 
which are wrought on the marble Pannels, when they have three Legs in the Original. 

In his Hiftorical Account (V), he fuppofes that the Infcription on the Architrave of this Building, re- 
lates to Athletic Combats; and in his Defcription of the Sculpture on the Frize, he tells us, that the 



(a) Mr y xg?avoi #e xa hwzs e'x^vxTQi w«Xov oXxo/, 

"Eaitvox [x>i§fwQsvT£S s( dyyJXa, vutx fy axoWwv, 

'OXxa/ais eXiHso-onv dvifyapev els *t§as \rtS- 

* and now, infpired with Life, 

1 The Cables coil'd in fnaky wreaths, begin 
* To writhe their length enormous; they aflume 
4 The form of Dragons; all the Rigging hifles! 
' Aloft, where to the Wind in wanton folds 
■ The Streamer wav'd, behold, a fierce Ceraftes, 
' Shoots forth his hideous form . 

Nonnus's Dionyfiacs. Book xlv. v. 137. 

(b) Numifmata maximi Moduli ex Cimeliarchio Ludovici XIV, &c. ad 
exemplar Parifienfe Eleutheropoli MDCCIV. Plate 10 and Plate 27. Not 
having the Original Edition at Hand, it was thought fufficient to refer, to this, 
and to take the Examples from it. 

(c) * II eft facile de voir que cette Infcription ne differe que par les norm 
« ce ceux qui prefiderent aux jeux, & qui remportercnt les prix, de celles 
4 qui font fur ie portail de la Madone Spiliotifia dont j'ai deja parle page 14. 



* Je crois avoir affez bien prouve que dans ces derniers il eft queftion des 
« combats Athletiques, & il me paroit tres - vraifemblable que celles de la 
' Lanterne de Demofthene, fait mention des femblable combats ; les group- 
' pes des Figures que Ton voit fur la Frife de ce monument, favorifent cette 
' opinion ; dans un de ces grouppes on voit deux Lutteurs qui combattent, 

* Tun tient l'autre renverfe fous lui, & lui tire les Bras par derriere de toute 
' fa force; dans un fecond on remarque un homme par terre, & deux au- 
' tres avec des Maflues prets a raflbmmer ; un troifieme repreTente un homme 
1 qui femblc en vouloir lier un autre a un arbre. On voit encore dans 
' cette Frife plufieurs morts, des hommes portant des flambeaux allumes, & 
' deux figures entre lefquelles il y a une vafe. Je foupconne que ce font 
'deux Athletes qui facrifient a Hercule: car on voit ce Heros dans un 
' autre grouppe aflis fur un bucher auquel on met le feu ; & la plupart 
1 des figures de cette Frife portent chacune une peau de Lion. De ces Ob- 

* fervations fur l'infcription & les Bas-Reliefs de ce Monument, nous croyons 

* pouvoir prefumer qu'il fut dleve en Thonneur de plufieurs combattants de 
' la Tribu Acamantide, qui vainquirent dans les jeux Athletiques, & qu'il 
c fut dedie a Hercule ft renomme par fes combats.' Monjiew le Roy, Pa 1 1, 

Groupes 






The Choragic Monument of Lyficrates. 



35 

*7Z^Z2Z1T* ib T faV ° U ? iS Gpin ' ,0n: ^ **** ° f *"* ™- ' & one 
. h L In , nT , % . ' arC feCn tW ° B ° XerS fi g htin §' one of th ™ has thrown the o her under 

. to a TrZ o UbS / eady t0 kl1 ' h,m; a th,rd re P^fents a man who feems as if he would tye another 
to a Tree. One fees moreover in this Fri Ze feveral dead Bodies, Men carrying lighted Tore! «T ad 

' they ar tTn^to Zn fi 7^ *" Her ° b *** Gr ° Upe flUin S °" a f ^ r al Pil « *** 

• Lyon' sfin " Fro m th ^1 T ^f ^ ° f ** '^^ ° f this F ™ have each ° f «*■ a 
(co^flnf F e P I 7 I"' " thC InfCript! ° n and the BM ^°* * fl* Monument,' 

• bat To the T^ fA " ' " ^ FefUme that !t ^ e,e<fted in h0 »° ur of fe — ' Com- 
battants of the Tr.be of Acamant.s, who vanquimed in the Athletie Games; and that it was dedicated 

< to Hercules fo renowned for his Combats.' This Defection is a continued Series of MiPakes T e v 

have moft of them been made before, tho' in fewer Words, by Wheler and Spon(«): none of them 

are perhaps fo pleafant as Monf. t* Roy's change of the Dolphins into dead Men. 

of thefp^l P T/, hIS -° rk ' M ° nf - LC R ° y ^ th3t the ^ ° f the Columns * above ten 
of their Came ers <*), but in this he is miflaken. He tells us that, ■ the Crowning of this Editice 

o do e :;• t ary Pa :? f it; its Form ' and m * h *° & >' & * • ^ «** o. Z5££ 

to doubt of its Antiquity; I formed the fame Judgment on it,' continues Monf. Le Roy, i havW 
feen a Drawmg of this Monument which Lord Charlemont had caufed to be taken at Athens; but 
havmg in this aft City examined and confidered this Monument at my Ieifure, I changed mv opini „. 

Bu Id" k T ' " ? le3Ve n ° d ° Ubt ' that thC Cr ° Wnin » and aH the EnuWatureof the 

Building, on the Architrave of which is an Infcription from whenc, we learn that it was built in the 

Time of Demoflhenes are exactly of one felf fame Piece cut out of the Blocker). Here Monf 
Le Roy, i, again m.ftaken; and if he has really examined this Monument at his Ieifure, he has never- 
theless in thefe particulars, as in many others, copied the erroneous account given of them by Soon- 
who tells us, that the Covering of this building is of one and the fame Piece with the Fri ze (J) When' 
as we have before obferved, the Architrave and Frize are one Piece, the Cornice is in three Pieces, the 
Roof is one Piece, and another Piece compotes the upper part of the Flower ; fo that there are in all 
iix Pieces in the Entablature and Crowning of this Building. 

In his Plan of the Roof of this Building, he has omitted the Cavities in the upper furface of the 
Flower; and he has covered the Roof itfelf with Scales inftead of pointed Leaves. He has likewife 
decorated the Top of the three Helices or Scrols with Acanthus Leaves, when in the Original there 
are no Leaves there, nor any Ornament, except plain Mouldings. He has omitted the two Circles of 
Vitruvian Scrole, &c. 

By his Elevation, Plate XXV, it appears, that he has not examined below the prefent Surface of 
the Ground. The range of Stones which in this Print of his are next the Ground, is reprefemed as 
one Stone only, when in the Original it is compofed of two; of the fecond range he has made three 
Stones, when that like the former is compofed of two only in the Original. He has not hollowed the 
under part of the Corona of this Bafement; and he has finifhed it with a fqtiare Fillet, when in the 
Original it finifhes with an Ovolo. 



(a) 11 y a quatorze grouppes de deux Figures chacune, dont I* une a pref- 
que toujours la depouille de Lion. II y en a quelques-unes qui cembattent & 
d'autres qui facrifient. La plus remarquable de ces Figures eft un Hercule, 
&c. Spons Voyage, Tome II. Page 173, 174, 

(A) La Proportion de fes Colonnes, eft de plus de dix diametres de haut. 
Le Roy, P. II. page 22. 

(e) Le couronnement de cet Edifice eft ce qu'il y a de plus extraordi- 
naire; fa forme & fa richefie ont fait douter a quelques Architects, avec 
beaucoup de raifon, de fon amiquite; j'en portai le meme jugement, ayant 



vu a Rome un Deflein de ce Monument que Milord Charlemont avoit fait 
prendre a Athenes ; mais ayant examine & confide're dans cette derniere 
Ville, ce Monument a loifir, j'ai change d'opinion. J'ai reconnu, a n'en 
pas douter, que le couronnement & tout I'Lntahlement de I'Edifice, fur 
1' Architrave duquel on lit une Infcription qe nous apprend qu'il fut conftruit 
dans le terns de Demofthene, font exaftement d'une mfime Piece, tailles dans 
le Bloc. Le Roy, Patt II. Page 22. 

(d) Ce Couvert qui eft taillS en Ecailles, n'eft qu'une meme Piece avec la 
Frife. Spons Voyage, Tome II. Page 173. 

S The 



36 



The Choragic Monument of Lyjicrates. 



The Tripods which are wrought in BafTo- Relievo on the Pannels of the Intercolumniation, he has 
reprefented with two Legs only; and he has omitted their Handles. The Mouldings on which thefe 
Tripods are placed, he has profiled at their Extremities: and he has omitted the Fafcia under thofe 
.Mouldings. His reprefentation of the Capitals of the Column does not agree with his Defcription; 
and neither one nor the otlier agrees with the Original, &c. 

In the Se£tion, Plate XXVI, he fets down meafures to each different range of the Foliage which 
compofes the Flower. Here not only the Meafures are falfe, but he has mifcounted the Number of 
thefe Ranges, and has mifreprefented their Form, both in this and in the preceding Plate. The 
Jnfide of the Roof which he makes quite fmooth, the Pannels which he has made of an equal thick- 
nefs from top to bottom, the internal Face of the Capitals which he has omitted, the two Apertures 
which he makes in the circular Colonnade, and a number of fuch like inaccuracies, would tire the 
Reader were they all to be enumerated: they are however fo many Proofs of Monf. Le Roy's want 
of attention. This Chapter fhall finim with a conjecture propofed by him, and with the Obfervation 
on which he founds it. 

* Vitruvius,' fays he, ' teaches that the Top of round Temples fhould be terminated by a Flower, which 

■ is not a very bold Ornament. The height of this Flower which he [Vitruvius] makes equal to the 
c height of the Capital, has given birth to a Conjecture of mine. The little round Temple of Hercules, 

* (for fo Monf. Le Roy calls this Building) is terminated by a kind of Capital with three Angles, the 
9 height of which does not differ much from that of the Capitals of the Columns of this Edifice. This 
1 Obfervation has made me think that the Ancients terminated perhaps originally their little round 
4 Temples, with Capitals fimilar to thofe of their Columns; and that when in procefs of time, they 

■ crowned them with Flowers inftead of thefe Capitals, they ftill continued neverthelefs to give them 

• the height of thefe fame Capitals' (a), &c. Now the Reader muft be informed, that the height of 
the Capitals of this Building is i Foot 7 Inches -rW and the height of the Flower, which Monf. Le Roy 
in this account makes nearly equal to it, is 4 Feet 5 Inches 



5 8 



(a) Vitruve enfeigne que le haut de Temples ronds devoit £tre termine 
' par un fleuron qui n'eft pas un ornement fort male, & la hauteur de ce 

* fleuron, qu'il fait egale a celle du chapiteau, m'a fait naitre une conjec- 
*• ture. Le petit Temple d'Herculc eft termine par une efpece de chapiteau 
4 a trois angles, dont la hauteur ne s'eloigne pas beaucoup de celles des 

• chapiteaux des colonnes de cct Edifice. Cette obfervation m'a fait penfer 



1 que les Anciens terminoient peut etre d'abord leurs petit* Temples ronds, 

* par des chapiteaux femblables a ceux de leurs colonnes ; & que dans la fuite 
' ayant mis des fleurons pour couronnements en place de ces chapiteaux, ils 

* leur donnerent toujours la hauteur dc ces merries chapiteaux.' Lc Roy, 
Part II. Page 22. 




J?fijtS«"l«e.Sci»lf). 



CW.lV.Pl:! 




Chap W P1H 




y.t^da^rr uc^A**^ 




CEaplVTl HI 






V 



V 



\4- *»* 












f 1 ? 6$n>Aer Mm/jt ?^__ 



Uiap.l\ .V\ .IV 



Ilk 



^ 







J. OS 

— * — 







Chap:I\ r Pl\ r 




.'V/'.y/ 



Chap:lFJl:VI 




r. L&roAtr mt/fl 



Cli ap.TV.PBlL. 

i .■ .1 = 

f 74 




y*~)Ba«ir* «<-u/p 



twavram 







Cha plV.ri ix 




Cbapirpixi. 




Chap w pi xn 




t 

.1 



Chap IV.PL.XIV 




nxvr. 




cwiv:pi:3VL 




Chap-.IV.Pl-.XVll. 




Chap IV PI TOIL 




(WivFim 




diapiv.pi.xx: 




iv .ri.xxi. 







(W iv in xxii 





chapiypixan 



I 




IV.'PLXXV. 











p«*~.c££.' 



CHAPTER V. 

Of a Stoa or Portico, commonly fuppofed to be the remains of 

the Temple of Jupiter Olympius. 

THIS is one of the moft confidence Remains of Athenian Magnificence, and when it was 
entire muft certamly have made a very noble Appearance; fince in its prefent ruinous condi- 

T ;, A, • u° I g a " effe<51 ' that m ° ft T " TC "e» I«™ miftaken it for the Temple of 
Jupiter Olympius, which in Splendor and Majefty, furpafled every other Structure in Athens^ 

What the ancient Name of this Building was, appears extremely difficult to afcertain. The Tradi- 
tion of he prefent Athenians will not affift us in the difquifition ; they call it indifferently, the Palace 
of Pericles or of Them.ftoc.es, but it feems altogether incredible, that among thofe jealous Republicans 
any Cit.zen mould venture to ered fo fplendid a Houfe for his own private Habitation^). No Sculpt 
tares or Infcnpt.ons have been dffcovered here, that afford any light to our Enquiry; the general Plan 
of the external Walls may however be traced; and this, with fome other Circumftances to be here- 
after mentioned, make it probable, that thefe Ruins are rather the remains of a Stoa or Portico, than 
either of a Palace or Temple. 

The external Walls enclofe a large quadrangular fpace of 37 6 Feet, i Inch in length, and 2 <2 Feet 
in Breadth. The Front looks nearly W. N. Weft; or to be more exad, it lyes 2 8\ 9 o' f Baft of 
North, and Weft of South. In the middle of it are the remains of a Gate or Entrance, to which 
they formerly afcended by a flight of fix Steps. The whole extent of this Front is ornamented with 
Corinthian Columns, and is terminated at each extremity by a Pteroma, or projecting Wall, which is 
faced with a Corinthian Pilafier. 

Originally the number of thefe Columns was eighteen; they were difpofed in the following 
manner. Four of them, which were fluted, were placed in the middle of the Front on the uppermoft 
Step; they fupported an Entablature and Pediment, and formed a Portal or (c) Portico before the Gate 



(«) Magnificentiae vero in Deos, vel Jovis Olympii templum Athenis 
unum in terris inchoatum pro magnitudine dei poteft leftis effe. 

1 Of his {Antiochus Epiphanes) religious Magnificence, the Temple of Jupiter 
' Olympius at Mens may ferve as a particular Teflimony ; it is the only one in the 
« World undertaken in a manner fuilable to the greatnefs of the Deity. 1 Livy, 
Boot XLI. Chap. 20. 

Vitruvius clafles this Temple of Jupiter Olympius, with the Temple of 
Diana at Ephefus, the Temple of Apollo at Miletus, and the Temple of 
Ceres and Proferpine at Eleufis; thefe were the four facred Edifices, hs in- 
forms us, which were molt celebrated for their Beauty and Magnificence. See 
the Proeme to his feventh Book. 

(1) 'tiia b" y'rw o-wfyoves i<rav, J, erpfofya b rS r»< iroXirelas rjdei pivovrec, w f s ri,v 
'kpvtBfo, £ r»*v MiArato, «, r«v Tore Xapgqw out/ay tiftf a'fa offo vpwv vrroix 
*or' gj-jy, of a rijc rS ysitoyos bU.v ospvorigxy fray. 



'In their private capacities, they had fo much moderation, and adhered fo 
'Jleadily to the Manners which the Conflitution of their Country enjoins, that if any 
' one looks at the Houfe of Arijlides or Miltiades, and the other illuflrious men 
\ of thofe times, he fees it in no refpeel finer than the next door Neighbours: 
Demollhenes, Olynth. II. 

(c) A Portico is properly what the Grecians called a Stoa, it was a qua- 
drangular Space, with a Colonnade or Periftyle round its infide. As the 
Building treated of in this Chapter is fuppofed to be of that kind, we (hall, to 
avoid ambiguity, call the Ornament of Columns which is placed before (fail 
Gate- way, a Portal. 

Perhaps this word will on all occafions, bed exprefs that piece of Architec 
ture fo frequently placed before the Door or entrance of any Building, tho' it 
is more generally called a Portico. 

T On 



3« 



Of a Stoa or Portico. 



On either fide of this was a Range of feven Columns whofe Shafts were not fluted; they were placed 
each on its proper Pedeftal, the top of which was exactly level with the uppermoft Step of the Portal. 

The North-Eafterly half of this Front, with its Columns, Pedeftal s and Entablature, are not much 
defaced; but the South-Weftern Column of the Portal, with that Angle of the Entablature which it 
fupported, are wanting; and there are befides no remains of the Cornice which was over the Tympanum 
of the Pediment. That half of the Front which lyes South-Wefterly of the Portal is much ruined, 
but great part of the Wall is yet remaining there, together with the feven Pedeftals, and fome fragments 
of the Columns which were placed on them; all which are in their original Situations. The Antae or 
Pilafters of the Portal are entire, as are alfo thofe Pteromata or Wings which limit each extremity of 
this Front and determine its utmoft extent. 

The two lateral Walls were moft probably fimilar to each other; that which is on the North-Eaftern 
Side of the Quadrangle, remains fufficiently entire to ftiew what its general Form has been. On the 
outfide of this Wall are three remarkable Projections : that in the middle is rectangular, and has pro- 
bably been an Entrance; thofe on each fide of it are femicircular, and appear to have been what Vi- 
truvius calls Exhedrae : they form recefTes on the infide of the Quadrangle, fomewhat refembling thofe 
on each fide of Weftminfter-Bridge; and like them, were defigned to accommodate fuch Perlbns as 
were difpofed to fit and converfe without Interruption. 

Great part of the Back Front likewife remains; it is fupported on the outfide by fix large plain 
Paraftata or EuttrefTes. Whatever Decoration may have been on the interior Face of this Wall, it is 
evident, that the external Face has never had much Ornament beftowed on it. There ftill remain 
fome Traces of a Periftyle, or continued Colonnade, which on the infide of thefe Walls, encompafTed 
the Quadrangular Space beforementioned. This Periftyle was compofed of a double Range of Columns, 
agreeing in this particular with Vitruvius's Defcription of Porticos. Of the great number of Columns 
that were necefiTary to form fuch a Periftyle, only one remains in its original Place; and it feems to be 
of that Range which was fartheft diftant from the Wall. 

Exactly fronting the Gate or Entrance, defcribed in the third and fourth Section of this Chapter, and 
about 250 Feet diftant from the Front Wall, are fome old Foundations {a) ; on them, a large Church, 
the Work of a moft barbarous Age, has been fince erected; it is called ee megdle Panagia^ or great 
St. Mary's. In the Walls of this Church are dill to be feen an ancient Arch, and fome other Remains 
of excellent Mafonry: contiguous to the Church are three Columns fupporting an Aichitrave; they 
were probably part of the fame Edifice to which the Arch originally belonged. 

Whatever difficulties attend the difquifition concerning this Building; moft evidently it was not the 
Temple of Jupiter Olympius; for that Temple was fituated in the Southern part of the City near the 
Fountain Callirrhoe, whereas this Building flands to the North of the Acropolis. Thofe ftately Ruins 
vulgarly called the Columns of Adrian, and fuppofed to be the Remains of that Emperor's Palace, ftand 
exactly on the fpot afiigned by the Ancients, to the Temple of Jupiter Olympius. In reality, thefe 
laft mentioned Ruins agree in fo many other particulars, befides their Situation, with the Defcriptions of 
that fumptuous Temple which are flill extant, that it is not eafy to conceive, how any other Build- 
ing could ever be miftaken for it. For we find, that the Columns of Adrian, as they are 
called, ftand in the South (b) Part of the City, and they are near the Fountain Enneacrunos, or 



(a) If the Periftyle, or internal Colonnade crofled the quadrangular Space 
clofe by the front of thefe Ruins, the Area enclofed by it will have been 
exactly a Square. 

(b) To' Si rtfo ruruy dxooifohic if vuv %<ra, icXi; |v, k, To iV ai/Vgv #fis "oVov 
j/,aA*s-a rerfo/xju-ivov. &c. 

Smith very properly tranflates this Paffage as follows, j Before this time, 

* that which is now the Citadel and that part which lies on the fouth-fide cf the 

* Citadel, was all the City. 7 he temples built either within the Citadel or without, 

* fufficiently Jhcw it. For in the fouth-part of the City, particularly, fland 



« the Temples of Olympian Jove, of the Pythian Apollo, &c. M the other 
* ancient Temples are featcd in the fame Quarter. Near it alfo is the Fountain, 
1 now called Enneacrunos, or nine pipes, &c* Thucyd. B. II. 15. 

Here Valla, inftead of vfo vorw, reads Tr^ca^xrov. or, on the North fide of 
the Citadel, and Palmerius feems to approve this reading, and to fuppofe that 
the Fountain Enneacrunos and mount Hymettus were «o the North of the 
Citadel. But they are miitaken, for the Enneacrunos, the llifTus, Hymettus, 
and the country of Agra, lying between Hymettus and the Uiflus, are all 
fituated to the Southward of Athens. 

Callir- 



at .Athens. 



to 



CalIirrhoe(a), as was before obferved; to which may be added, that they are of very extraordinary 
Dimenfions(£), being near fixty Feet high, and about fix Feet in Diameter; they are the remains of 
a Dipteros and Hypaethros^), of the Corinthian Order; and the Peribolus or Enclofure in which they 
flood, was nearly if not quite a circuit of four Stadia (d). Now thefe are exacftly the particulars which 
the Ancients have left us concerning the Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens, as may be feen by 
the authorities, cited in the Notes. 



On the contrary, the Building treated of in this Chapter ftands to the Northward of the Acropolis, 
its Columns are only 28 Feet, 10 Inches T VA in height, and 2 Feet, 11 Inches A in Diameter: there 
remain no traces either of a Dipteros or Hypaethros, and the whole circuit of the Walls including the 
Curvature of the Exhedrae, has been only 1400 Englifh Feet, or two Stadia and about one third.° 

It has been already obferved in Chapter II. that Monf. Le Roy fuppofes thefe Columns of Adrian, as 
they are called, to be the remains of the Pantheon built at Athens by the Emperor Adrian (V); but if 
the Reafons which have been now produced are fufficient to fhew that they belonged to the Temple 
of Jupiter Olympius, he is evidently miftaken. 

Wheler and Spon have imagined that they are the remains of one hundred and twenty Columns of 
Phrygian Marble (/), with which that Emperor as Paufanias (g) informs us, adorned an Edifice erecled 
by him at Athens; and they fuppofe this Phrygian Marble to be whiter than the Marble of Pentelicus. 
But Phrygian Marble is a fpecies of Alabafler variegated with beautiful Veins and Spots. Stephanus 
Byzantinus fays, that Alabajira is a City of Phrygia in which an excellent fpecies of Marble was 
found(A); and this feems to be perfectly explained by a palTage in Strabo, where he tells us that there 
were Quarries near Synnada, a City of Phryg'a which affjrded a fort of Stone, variegated nearly in the 
manner of the Alabajlrites\ and that Columns and Slabs of it were carried to Rome, wonderful for their 
dimenfions and beauty (*). Now it is evident from liny, that the Alabaftrites which this Phrygian 
Marble refembled, was diverfified with various colours^; fo that Wheler and Spon arc undoubtedly 
miftaken when they fuppofe that the Columns of Adrian which are white are of Phrygian Marble, and 
that Phrygian is whiter than Pentelic Marble. On the ftrifteft examination no difference could be dif- 
cerned between the Marble of thefe Columns, and that of the other Buildings in Athens: we may 
therefore be certain that they were brought from Pentelicus and not from Phrygia. For it is not 
credible that Adrian would have been at the Expence of tranfporting from a diftant Country to 
Athens, a Marble which the Quarries of Attica afforded in great Plenty and Perfection. 

Having proved that the Ruin defcribed in this Chapter could not be the Temple of Jupiter Olym- 
pius, the Reader may expecT: that in purfuance of the method obferved in the foregoing Chapters, 
fome attempt be here made to difcover what building it really was. 



(a) Ta,£avr7v& £s Uoou rlv ra Aioc vecvv ■K.a.Ta.trx.evdttfivrtx.s 'AQrpahs 'EmaxfsVtf 
rfAij<r/ov, &c. * Taurentinus relates, that when the Athenians were building the 

* Temple of Jupiter Olympius, near the Fountain Enneacrunos, 7 Sec. Hieroclcs in 
the Preface to his Hippiatrics, cited by Meurfius in his Cecropia. Page 32 

(bj In Aftu vero Jovem Olympium amplo modulorum comparatu, Corin- 
thiis fymmetriis & proportionibus, Archite&andum CofTutius fufcepifle me- 
moratur. ■ In the City of Athens we are told that CoJJiitius undertook the 

* building of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius on a fcale of great Dimen- 
« Jionsy and of the Corinthian Order* Vitruvius proeme to his feventh 
Book. 

(c) Hypjethros vero decaftylos eft in pronao & portico. Reliqaa omnia 
eadem habet, quae dipteros, &c. hujus autem Exemplar Romae non ell, 
fed Athenis odtaftylos in Templo Jovis Olympii. ' The Hypathros is de- 

* cajlyle both in the Portico and in the back Front. In all other rcfpeels it is 
' the fame with the Dipteros. There is no example of it at Rome, but at Athens 
\ the Temple of Jupiter Olympius tbo' an Odajlyle is of this Specie*: Vitruvius, 
Book 3. Chap. 1. 



(d) 'O {t,iv 0^ itSi ireglZoAOf g-ao/ujy [x.a>afX reo-G-dfujv s?lv. ' But the whole peri' 
* bolus (or circuit inclofing the confecrated place in which the Temple ftands,J 
1 is of about four Stadia. 1 Paufanias, Book I. Chap. XVIII. 

(e) Monf. Le Roy. Partie I. Page 35. 

(f) Wheler. Page 371. Spon's Voyages, Tome II. Page 169. 

(g) Paufanias Book I. Chap. 18, towards the end. 

(A) 'AXaCatffa, iroXij fyvy/otf. 'H?o$ohr- iv raith \ifo< Sidr^u.0;. Slepb. Byzant. 

(i) Ka< to AaTc/wov 7oiT Xvvrahxov A/Soy, &c. Kafaox^S f*A [uxf%< fiuiXovg exft- 
§bvT£$ ro'y /xrra'XXoy Sia $e Triv vuviifoXvrtXuay ruiv 'Poj^aja/v x/ovs j jaovoXiSs/ psydhoi, 
nCK^aXfivrti rw aKafixcthy Ulu **rd r^v *onuXi*v, Sec. 

Strabo, Page 557. 

(k) Alabaftrites nafcitur in Alabaftro iEgypti & in Syria Damafco, candors 
interftinfto variis coloribus. Pliny, Book XXXVII. Chap. 10. 



u 



The 



4 b 



Of a Stoa or Portico 



Paufanias affords us fome afliftance in this Enquiry; by his Defcription of this part of the City, it 
fhould feem that the Building in queflion can be no other than the celebrated Portico called the Poikile [a). 
In his way from the Ceramicus and the Temple of Vulcan, to the Poikile, he paffes near the Hermes 
Agoraeus, or the Mercury of the Agora; he then enters the Poikile which he defcribes, and having 
finifhed his account of it, he returns to the Agora, and enumerates various particulars he obferved in 
that Place. The manner in which Paufanias fpeaks of thefe Buildings, and the tranfitions he makes 
from one to the other of them, are fuch, that we muft necelTarily conclude them to be almoft con- 
tiguous to each other. He then proceeds to the Gymnafium of Ptolemy, which he tells us is not far 
from the Agora; and to the Temple of Thefeus, which he informs us is near the Gymnafium. Hence 
it appears that thefe three Buildings, the Agora, the Poikile, and the Gymnafium of Ptolemy, flood 
near each other; and likewife, that the Agora was nearer than the Poikile both to the Ceramicus and to 
the Gymnafium; and that the Gymnafium lay between the Agora and the Temple of Thefeus. 

Now the Temple of Thefeus ftill remains at Athens, and the Sculptures on it are fufficient warrant 
for the name univerfally given it; that Temple therefore is a fixed and certain Spot, concerning the 
fituation of which there can be no difpute. 

There are at prefent not far from the Temple of Thefeus, three of the moft confiderable Ruins in 
Athens, ftanding together, and as it where in one Groupe; one of thefe is the Building under our prefent 
confideration, which from the Difpofition of its Plan, as we have already obferved, appears to have been 
a Stoa or Portico; another of thefe Ruins is the Doric Portal treated of in our firft Chapter, where it 
is proved to be, moft probably, the Agora; and the third may be fuppofed both on account of its fitua- 
tion and extent, to be the remains of the Gymnafium of Ptolemy; for it is the neareft of the three 
to the Temple of Thefeus, being in facl: fcarcely feven hundred feet diftant from it, and it lyes betwen 
that Building and the Agora, from which it is only two hundred Feet diftant; its Plan moreover 
is a quadrangle whofe longeft fides extended about four hundred, and its fhorteft about three hun- 
dred Feet, a Space well adapted to the ufes of a Gymnafium. 

To this Circumftance of their Vicinity, may be added, that the refpe&ive fituations of thefe Ruins 
correfpond with each other, and with the Temple of Thefeus, exactly in the manner that the Agora, 
the Poikile, and the Gymnafium, correfpond in Paufanias's Defcription of them; for going the neareft 
way from that part of the City in which the Ceramicus flood, to the Ruin here fuppofed to be the Poikile, 
you have the Doric Portal, which was fhewn to be moft probably the Agora, on your right hand full 
in View; that Ruin fuppofed to be the Gymnafium, is on your left; and a little farther, but on the 
fame fide with the Agora, you arrive at that which is the Subject of our prefent Confideration. 

Again, if from the Agora you go to the Temple of Thefeus, it is neceflary to pafs by the Ruin here 
fuppofed to be the Gymnafium of Ptolemy. 

We may therefore fay, the fituations of thefe Ruins are fuch, that whatever proves any one of them 
to be the remains of the Building correfponding to it in Paufanias's defcription, will fhew with the fame 
degree of Evidence, that the other two likewife correfpond; for inftance, the reafons alledged in the 
firft Chapter to prove that the Building there treated of, was part of the Agora, prove equally 



(a) The Poikile was the principal Stoa or Portico in Athens, it was adorned 
with a great variety of excellent Paintings, and with Shields taken by the Athe- 
nians from their Enemies; fee Paufanias's Attica, Chapter 15. It was like- 
wife celebrated for giving the Name of Stoics, to the School of Philofophers 
inftituted by Zeno. 

Paufanias in Chap. XIV, of his Book, treats of the Ceramicus and fome 
neighbouring Euildings, particularly he finifhes that Chapter with an account 
of the Temple of Venus Urania, near that of Vulcan and Minerva, which 
was over the Ceramicus, and immediately begins Chapter XV. in the follow- 
ing manner. 'Iao-j S& it^s ryv s odv, ft iroixlXyy Qvopafyvo-iv dir rwv ypatpwy: h» 
'E^fo x**™s> ^XBfiBvos 'Ayofafo. « Going to the Stoa or Portico, which they 
■ call the Poikile, or the piflured, from the Paintings which are in it, there is a 



* Mercury of Brafs, called Agor*us, or belonging to the Agora. Paufanias Attica, 
Chap. XV. 

He then enters the Poikile, and defcribes very particularly the paintings and 
other ornaments he found there, and when he has finifhed that defcription, he 
tells his Reader. 'Aflijva/ojj Si iv ?$ dyopa. «, d'Xhd erlv ax is affavTas htior^a, «, 
'E\{b (Zwpof ice. Kai ydp Alios c<p[v\ Puzo's e'r<> k, fijHf » *> 'Opprjs, Sec Ev Si ruj 
yvpvx<riu) rys dyopas affix ™ a ttoKv, UroXs^cTiov Si dita ra ■nxretrKavxa-^va kxXh- 
^ivw, &c. Ilp&f Si rui yvpvxtriw Grj<r'iws ifh lepov, ice. * In the Agora, the 

* Athenians, have other things not generally obferved; as the Altar of Mercy, &c. 

* In the Gymnafium of Ptolemy fo called from its Founder, which is not far from 
1 the Agora &c. Near the Gymnafium is the Temple of Thefeus. Paufanias, 
Attica, Chapter XVII. 

that 



at Athens. 



4* 



that the other two are the Remains of the Poikile and of the Gymnafium. And hence we may con- 
elude that the Ruin which is here the particular Subjecft of our Confideration, and which from the 
difpofition of its Plan appears to have been a Stoa or Portico, was from its fituation and the richnefs of 
its Architecture, that principal Stoa called the Poikile. 

PLAT E I. 

A Profpeft of the Front of this Building in its prefent condition, taken from a Window up one pair 
of Stairs, in the houfe of Nicolas Logotheti the Britifh Conful at Athens. This Front is encumbered 
with Houfes, Magazines and Workfhops, which are built againft it, and obftru& the View of it in fuch 
a manner, as to render its general difpofition quite unintelligible to thofe who fland any where on the 
level of the Street: and they conceal great part of it, even from the Spe&ator who is placed in the 
moft favorable Situation. Thefe Magazines and Work-Shops are occupied by Sope Makers- there is 
a confiderable number of thofe Manufacturers here, and Sope is at prefent one of the principal com- 
modities of Athens. 

That part of this ruined Building towards the right Hand, is the remains of the Portal, cr Portico 
which was formerly in the middle of the Front, when the Front was entire; here a Church is built, 
the name of which we do not recoiled. On the ruined Pediment of the Portal is a flngle Arch which 
rifes higher than any other Building in the View, the Bell of this Church has formerly been hung in 
it, but at prefent, Bells are not permitted in Athens; the Turks have a great antipathy to them, and 
generally deftroy them, throughout their Empire. The Greeks one would imagine have been equally 
fond of them, for they talk even now, of the deftruclion and prohibition of their Bells, as one of the 
greateft Mortifications they fuffer. 

On that extremity of the Front which is towards the left Hand, is the Northern Pteroma 
terminated by a Corinthian Pillafter. Of the feven Columns which are placed between the Portal 
and the Northern Pteroma, only five are vifible in this View; the other two are here concealed 
by the projection of the Portal, and by that part of the Church contiguous to it. The faint 
diflant Mountain which appears over the middle of the ancient Ruin, is Pentelicus; this has 
been reprefented before in Chapter II. Plate I. it is about fixteen Miles from Athens': towards 
the foot of this Mountain there is a very confiderable Convent called Mendelee but written u^l^ 
by the modern Greeks: about half way between the Convent and the fummit of the Mountain are 
the celebrated Quarries of Pentelic Marble. The nearer dark Mountain on the left hand is called 
Pfychicos, from a little Chappel on it of that name, not vifible in this View: it is part of a clufler of 
Hills called by the Antients Mount Brileffus, and by the modern Athenians Turco Bouna. On the 
right of Pentelicus is a fharp pointed, rocky Hill, with a little Building on the top of it: the Hill is 
Mount Anchefmus, and the Building on it is a Chappel dedicated to Saint George; probably in the fame 
Situation that the Statue of Jupiter Anchefmius was formerly placed (a). Lower down this Hill to- 
wards the right hand, is afmall whitifh objecT:; this is the Ruin ufually called the Aqueducl of Adrian; 
near which Spot, the general View at the beginning of this Book was taken. The more diflant Hills 
to the right of this, are two of the eaftern Points or Summits of Mount Hymettus, between which a 
Convent is fituated called Kynegos. 

The Figures reprefent a Turkifh Aga or Gentleman, receiving a Vifiter. They are both feated in 
a Kiofc, the Vifiter is placed on the left Hand : where a Servant offers him a Pipe of Tobacco, another 
brings him Coffee, while a third Servant, who is defcending fome Steps, follows them with Sweet- 

(«) Pauianias, Book I. Chap. 32. enumerates fome of the Mountains of Gods; and he adds. Ka.) 'Ayx/trfios ofos ifh a (leya, *, &iig oiyaXpz hyyj<ru.'ns. 

Attica. Pentelicus where the Quarries of Marble are, Pames, which affords * Likewife, there is Mount Ancbe/mus, of no great magnitude, and the Statue of 

the Hunters plenty of Bears and wild Boars, Hymettus celebrated for its « Jupiter Anchefmius. 
Honey. On thefe Mountains, he tells us, were Statues and Altars of the 

X Meats 






4* 



Of a Stoa or Portico, 



Meats and a Napkin. This laft Article appears very neceffary after eating or drinking, wherever Beards 
and Mouftachios are in Fafhion. 

The nearer Figure is an Albanefe Groom with his Matter's Horfes. The Albanefe are generally the 
Hufbandmen, and the Servants of this Country; and all of them talk the Illyric Language. 

PLATE II. 

The Plan of the Building treated of in this Chapter. It has here been thought neceffary to diftinguifti 
fhofe Parts which we found (landing to a confiderable height, from thofe where the Foundations only 
could be traced ; or where at moft, the remains do not rife above five or fix Feet above the Founda- 
tion; in the firft Cafe therefore, the thicknefs of the Wall is expreffed by being fliaded; in the laft, it 
is marked by two parallel Lines that have no fhading betwixt them. Another diftinction was likewife 
thought neceffary here, becaufe in many Parts the Foundation of this Building could not be dif- 
covered: in feme places we found it was deftroyed, and in others the difficulty of gaining admiffion 
into the Houfes of Turks who have Families, was an obftacle to our enquiries not to be furmounted : 
this happened particularly in regard to the South Weftern Side of the Building. We were how- 
ever generally enabled to reftore thefe Places, from their analogy with fuch parts of the Building as 
ftill remain: thefe Reftorations are always expreffed with dotted Lines. In the middle of this Plan 
are the ancient Foundations on which the Church of the Megdk Panagia is built. It fhould be ob- 
ferved that the Front of the Building is reprefented here next the bottom of the Page, it looks towards 
the W. North-Weft Point of the Compafs, and of confequence the Wall on the left hand Side, faces 
nearly N. North-Eaft. 

PLATE in. 

The Elevation of the Portal of the foregoing Building, and of that half of the Front which ftands 
to the Northwards of it. The Extremity of this Elevation towards the left Hand reprefents one of 
the femicircular Exhedrae. There are abundant Authorities for all the Reftorations in this Plate, 
except for the Cornice which is over the Pediment; and the Podium or Spandrel at each extremity of 
the Steps ; of thefe indeed, no remains could be found. It is obfervable, that on this Front the Abacus 
of the Capital is every where continued, between the Wall and the Architrave of the Entablature. 

P L A T E IV. 

A Se&ion of the Front Wall ; with a Profile of the Portal, and of the Southern Pteroma, likewife, 
one of the feven Columns which are placed between the Portal and the Northern Pteroma. The 
Numbers accompanied with afterifms denote the depth of the Channels of the Ruftic, and the Pro- 
jections of the different Ornaments of the Front Wall. 

The Column neareft to the Wall is one of the feven which are placed between the Portal and the 
Northern Pteroma; the Corinthian Pilafter next it, is one of the Antae of the Portal; the other Corin- 
thian Pilafter is that of the Southern Pteroma; and the Column fartheft diftant from the Wall is one of 
the Columns of the Portal. There is no Authority for the continuation of the Pedeftal on which this 
Column ftands, and which in this and the two following Plates is fuppofed to be one of the Podiums 
or Spandrels at the extremities of the Steps. 

P L A T E V. 

The Section of the Portal, and of the Gate-Way or Entrance before which it is placed. The internal 
Face of the Architrave is {hewn here, it differs from the external Face. The Abacus of the Capital 
which, as we have already obferved, is continued under the Architrave on the Front of this Building, 
is here continued in the fame manner on the infide of the Portal. 

PLATE 



^m 



at Athens. 
PLATE VI. 



43 



Part of the external Face of a lateral Wall or Flank of this Building, with its Cornice; {hewing how 
its junftion with the Pteroma is effe&ed, and the manner in which the Entablature of the Columns on 
the Front- Wall is difcontinued, 

PLATE VII. 

The Bafe of one of the four fluted Columns of the Portal. Not being permitted to dig for the 
Pedeftal of this Column, we are obliged to content ourfelves with giving one of thofe Pedeftals which 
are placed between the Portal, and the Northern Pteroma of this Building. It is obfervable that the 
Plinths of all the Bafes which remain here, project beyond the Dye of their Pedeftals. 

PLATE VIII. 

The Capital and Entablature of the Columns on the Front of this Building. The Abacus of this Ca- 
pital, like that of the Temple of Vefta at Rome, has its Angles Acute, that is, they are not cut off as 
is generally pra&ifed; there is a fmall Fillet immediately above the Aflragal of the Column, and eight 
fhort plain Leaves, from which the ufual Leaves of the fecond Range feem to fpring. The Profile of 
this Entablature refembles that of the Frontifpicce of Nero at Rome. But no part of the Mouldings 
are enriched, except only the SofEt of the Corona. 

Fig. a. The Se<5lion of the Capital. 

Fig. 3. The SofEt of the Corona, or Drip-Stone, and of the Modillions which fupport it. 

Fig. 4. The Architrave on the infide of the Portal. And the Mouldings of the Abacus of the Ca- 
pital which are continued under the Architrave. 

P L A T E IX. 

Fig. 1. The Plan of the Capital. 

Fig. 2. The Angular View of the Capital. 

P L A T E X. 

The Plan and Elevation of fome Ruins on which part of the Church called the Megdle Panagia is built. 

Fig. 1. The Elevation of an ancient Arch, part of the aforefaid Ruins. B,C, and D, refer to the 
fame Letters in the Plan. 

Fig. a. A Plan of all the ancient Remains which are vifible in this Church; more of them might 
probably have been difcovered on digging here, but it was not pradlicable in this Place; the parts dif- 
tinguifhed with Dotts are modern Walls. A. Three Columns and a Pilafter which have perhaps be- 
longed to the Periftyle formerly within the quadrangular Space. Both the Plan and the Elevation, are 
by miftake, reverfed in this Plate. 

PLATE XL 

Fig. 1. The Cornice of the lateral Walls and of the Exhedrae. 

Fig. a. The Architrave of the Gate- Way or Entrance before which the Portal in the middle of the 
Front is placed. 

Fig. 3. A Section of the aforefaid Architrave. 

Fig. 4. The Mouldings and Impoft of the Ancient Arch in the Church of the Megdle Panagia. 

Fig. 5. The Se&ion of an Architrave fupported by the three Columns, and by the Pilafter which 
are contiguous to the above mentioned Church, 

Fig. 6. The Capital of the Pilafter. 

v The 






44 



Of a Stoct or Portico, 



The enriched Mouldings at the beginning of this Chapter, and the Vafe at the end of it, are copied 
from Fragments which were found within the fpace enclofed by the Walls of this Building. By the 
Figures on the Vafe it feems defigned for a fepulchral Monument, but it has contained no remains of 
the dead Body, for it is a folid Piece of Marble. Over the Figure of the Man is infcribed his Name, 
Pamphilus the jEgilian, fon of Mexiades, and over the Woman is infcribed Jrchippe, the Wife or the 
Daughter, it fhould feem, of the fame Mexiades. Near the Vafe are two Infcriptions which have not 
been publifhed before, the Form of their Characters are here carefuly imitated. • 

In this Plate it has likewife been judged neceflary to give a Plan of the Building treated of in the pre- 
fent Chapter, and fliewn to be, moft probably, the Poikile; and alfo Plans of two confiderable Ruins 
near it, which are probably the remains of the Agora and of the Gymnafium of Ptolemy: to thefe are 
added the Temple of Thefeus and the Ceramicus. This Plan is defigned to illuftrate what has been faid 
of thefe Buildings, and will enable the Reader to determine more accurately, what degree of Evidence 
he may allow to the Arguments which have been deduced from their fituations in refpecft of each other. 

Monfieur Le Roys View of this magnificent Ruin is extremely inaccurate; as well in regard of the 
ancient Building, as of the modern Houfes and Shops which accompany it; but the Reader has pro- 
bably by this time had fufficient Specimens, of the liberties with which he indulges his Genius, in 
thefe pictorefque Reprefentations. 

In his hiflorical Defcription of this ancient Monument he has, in his ufual manner, implicitly fol- 
lowed the Opinion of Wheler and Spon ; and calls it, as they have called it, the Temple of Jupiter 
OJympius. 1 1 he famous Temple of Jupiter,' fays he, \ is diftinguifhable enough at Athens, becaufe 
« it is fituated m the lower City, defending from the Pritaneum, as Paufanias fuggefts; and it is to 
' the North of the Citadel, as Thucydides remarks: but its Greatnefs and Magnificence are what dif- 
' tmguiih it ftill better. One may fay, that it was the Work of many Ages, and of many Sovereigns, 
« who loved the Arts, and who flrove with Emulation to furpafs each other in the decoration or the 
' completion of this Building(«).' 

After this, he proceeds to give a fplendid Defcription of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, collected 
from the accounts of it which the ancients have left us; and he interfperfes his Defcription, with remarks 
on the errors of other Authors; he cenfures Prideaux, he correds the Abbe Gedoin, he wonders at the 
Miftake of Spon, and he does Wheler the Honour to allow, that he has conceived the Difpofition of 
.his Building better than his fellow Traveller. In fhort, Monf. Le Roy's erudition no where fhines 
with greater Brilliancy, than in his DiiTertation on the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, but all this Defcrip- 

(a) « Le fameux Temple de Jupiter eft affez reconnoiffable a Athenes, parce 
« qitilejlfttw dans la partie baJJ e de la vills, en defendant du Prytanec, comme 
« Paufanias I'mfnue, & qiCil eji au Nord de la Citadelle, ainfi que Thucydide le 
« rcmarque: mais fa grandeur & fa magnificence le font encore mieux'recon- 

* noitre; & 1'on peut dire qu'il fut lWrage de plufieurs Sie'cles & de plu- 

* f.eurs Souverains, qui aimerent les Arts & fe pique'rent a l'envi de l'embellir, 
« ou de l'achever.' Monf. Le Roy, Part I. Page 19. 

The two firft Authorities, here alledged by Monf. Le Roy, for fuppofing this 
Building to have been the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, have been already 
given both by Wheler and Spon. The French Tranflator of Wheler's Voy- 
ages (Tome II. Page 472.) has expreffed them in the following Words. 

< De plus il eft en la partie bajfe de la Ville en defcendant du Prytan'ee comme 

* Paufanias Vinftnue clairement, V il eft au cbt'c du Nord de la Citadelle comme 
' Thucydide Va remarque. See likewife Spon, Tome II, p. 186. but their firft 
Authority has no weight, for Wheler acknowledges that the fituation of the 
Prytaneum was not known to them. * But where really the Prytaneum was, 
(fays he) is not yet difcoveredj Page 391, and Spon, Tome II, p age 184,' 
without pretending to any thing like certainty, contents himfelf with faying. 
1 Jl ya quelques portail & quelques fendemens antiques, en montant de la vers la 
1 Citadelle, qui peuvent itre une partie de ce vafe batment: 

Their fecond Authority taken from Thucydides is at leaft as infufficient as 
the firft; for here they have both followed the faulty reading of Yalla, which 



has if* jpant, or towards the North, inftead of *& vorov, or towards the 
South, as was before obferved. 

What Monf. Le Roy adds concerning the Grandeur and Magnificence of 
thefe Ruins is juft as inconclufive ; it is this Grandeur and Magnificence which 
he makes the ftrongeft proof of their being the remains of the Temple of 
Jupiter Olympius, the Work of fcveral Ages, he tells us, and of fever al So- 
vercignswho loved the Arts, and who f rove with an emulous contention to em- 
belli/h it, or to complete it. Would not any one, after reading this, expea to 
meet with a profufion of Ornament here? Will he not be furprized to find 
that three Sides of this Building, are now, and always were, without orna- 
ment of any kind, unlefs the Cornice (Plate XI, Fig. 1,) can be called an 
Ornament; and that the fourth Side, or Front, tho' decorated with Columns 
and bearing an appearance of Magnificence, is yet in a Style of fuch fober 
Magnificence, as fhews the Oeconomy of a Republic, not the profufion of 
an Afiatic King or a Roman Emperor? There has never been any Or- 
naments of Sculpture on this Front, none of the Mouldings are enriched, 
and only four of the Columns, (thofe four in the middle of the Front) have 
been fluted. On the infide there is no Remains or Traces of Ornament, 
except fome Holes in which the Architraves of the Periftyle were in- 
ferted. J 



turn 



at Athens. 



45 



££ :f j;tf^ P t: n,ifapp,ied ' for the b » m] °* is not > ^ ** «* **** * * »~ 

Td whoT ffiT/ S r e ' * " a Paralle ' 0gram Wh ° fe ^ Sid ' -afures 7 6 EngHffi F« * 
Lo bloat rtCft ° n,y S52; ° f C ° nfeqUenCe ' he h3S made k ^ Feet too long, and\ I? Feet' 

of In Monroe 8 Ro^ ^ «^ n ^ a » d « ** %*. one of the moft unaccountable 
of all Monf Le Roys Errors. The Reader however, will, on a little Reflection, perceive that 
the fource of this Error may poflibly be found, in that deference which Monf Le RoT^nft, I 
pays to the Opinions of Wheler and Spon. R ° X conftantl y 

iS^Y ' f c 10n ^^ LC R ° y gCnera,Iy preferS ' fu PP° feS that this Plan '» a perfeft Square- 
and both Wheler and Spon agree, that the Northern Side of it meafures at leafi , 25 Paces Now the 

firfl of thefe Gentlemen informs us, that the manner in which he and his companion obtained the mea- 
sure of this Wall, was by pacing it<»; that is, by counting the number of Steps which they took h 
walking from one end of this Northern Wall to the other end. The Paces therefore with which they 
meafure it, are apparently, no other than the Steps which they took on this occafion. Thefe Step, were 
near three Feet each 5 or they were juft fuch Steps as men ufually make when they defign to meafure 
any diltance by pacing it; this will appear more evidently on examination. For 135, the number of 
Paces they affign to the length of this North Wall, being multiplied by 3, the number of Feet in an 
ordinary Pace, gives 375 , nearly approaching the number of Feet which this Wall atfually extends- 
and the fmall deficiency which arifes in this method of explaining their Meafures, is perfectly fupplied 
by the expreffions, at leafi, or du mains, which are here made ufe of both by Wheler and Spon. 

On this Principle, and on this only, their aocount is reconcileabl? to the real Meafures; but when 
they come to compute that thefe 1 25 Paces make a Stadium, they then confound the ordinary Pace of 
three Feet with the geometrical Pace which meafures five. 

It may be afked, how came Wheler and Spon to make this Miflake? We have already feen, that the 
Peribolus of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius was four Stadia in circumference ; and if with Wheler we 
fuppofe it a Square, each Side of it muft then have meafured, according to the ufual allowance for a 
Stadium, exadly 125 geometrical Paces. Now this is juft the number of ordinary Paces which he 
found in the length of the Northern Wall. It is the unlucky coincidence of thefe numbers, and the 
indifcriminate application of the word Pace to two very different Meafures, joined to the Opinion they 
had previoufly formed, that this Building was the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, which feem to have 
given rife to the whole fyftem of Wheler's and Spon's Errors. Monf. Le Roy muft have detected 
them, if he had applied his meafuring Rod to the Side of this Building. 

But he has contented himfelf with Wheler's Conjecture, that the Plan of this Building is a Square; 
and with the Meafure of at leafi 125 Paces, which both Wheler and Spon affign to one of its Sides; 
on thefe Paces of theirs it fhould feem he has fet himfelf to work, and inftead of eftimating them as' 
ordinary Paces, he, milled by the Authors whom we have already feen him copy in fo many of their 
miftakes, multiplies them by 5, the number of Feet in a geometrical Pace; this would give him 625 
Feet for the length of the Northern Wall; but what allowance fhould he make for the Expreffions, at 
leafi, and du moins, of Wheler and Spon? Why on this account it muft be, that he has added three 
Feet more; which increafes his number of Feet to 638; and this he boldly fets down for his Meafure 
of a Side of this Building. 

(«) To this [the Front] is joined a Wall in a right Angle; which i) facing we found to be, at leaft, aji Hundred and twenty-five Paces long; which is a 
Stadium. Wheler, Page 39J. 

Z Nor 



4* 



Of a Stoa or Portico^ 



Nor is it in the general Dimenfions only that Monf. Le Roy's Plan is faulty, we there find likewife 
that he has committed great Errors in the Form which he has given to the Walls of this Enclofure, 
and in the Number of Portals and Columns with which the Front of his Plan is decorated. 

He has moreover mifreprefented the Condition in which he found thefe Ruins; and by means of this 
Mifreprefentation he has obtained an appearance of Authority, which juftifies all the Errors he has here 
committed. For having [Part II. Plate XXII, Fig. i.] completed the Plan from his own Imagina- 
tion, he tells us, that the part of it which he examined on the fpot, is there fhaded with a darker Tint, 
to diftinguifh it from the Parts which he has reftored, (a). But by the undue diftribution which he 
makes of this darker Tint, his Reader is inevitably led into many Miflakes, as he muft imagine that 
fome parts of this Building are utterly deftroyed, of which neverthelefs confiderable Remains are ftill 
extant, but of a Form very unlike that which Monf. Le Roy has given them ; he muft likewife imagine 
that all the Parts of Monf. Le Roy's Plan, which are ihaded with the darker Tint are a6tually remain- 
ing, altho' it is mod evident, from the Difpofition of what a3ually remains of this Building, that many 
of them are his own invention, and fiich as neither have, nor ever can have exifted in the Original. It 
is eafy to judge from the following Inftances, how greatly Truth is injured by fuch Mifreprefentations. 

Monf. Le Foy has (haded the Eaftern Wall as if no Traces of it remained. It appears thus indeed 
in Wheler's Print of it, but in the original Building there is an extent of more than 1 50 Feet of this 
Wall remaining in one continued Piece, and fome Parts of it rife at leaft 20 Feet above the prefent 
Pavement. There are likewife many particulars obfervable in the Remains of this Wall, which Monf. 
Le Roy fhould have fecn and have copied. 

He has fhaded the Northern Wall with the ftronger Tint, to fhew, that it is not deftroyed, and 
lias fet down the number of Feet he fuppofes it to extend, as if he had really meafured it. It is true 
that great part of this Wall is actually ftanding, with the remains of the three Exhedrae on it> 
which are defcribed at Page 38, and reprefented in Plate II, of this Chapter. Thefe Exhedrae we 
obferve are not in Wheler's Print, and Monf. Le Roy has likewife omitted them. We may likewife 
obferve that he has fhaded this Wall throughout its whole extent with the darker Tint; we muft 
therefore conclude that he found it intire, and of confequence that it was very practicable to obtain 
its exact Form and Meafure. It is this Wall neverthelefs which he has made 290 Feet too long, and 
he has reprefented it by an uninterrupted Right Line. Now if Monf. Le Roy really meafured it, as 
the numeral Figures with which he has expreffed his Meafure are manifeftly defigned to imply, it is 
difficult to conceive how he could be fo greatly miftaken in its Dimenfions; and alfo how thefe Ex- 
hedrae could efcape his notice, for they are each of them about 33 Feet in extent, and the exterior 
Face of one of them ftill projects, and its interior Face recedes, about so Feet from the general Line of 
the Building; they muft therefore have hindered him from proceeding uninterruptedly in a Right Line, 
on which fide foever of this Wall he applied his meafuring Rod. But if he did not meafure it, if he 
only faw it in Wheler's Defcription, as may be fufpe&ed, he had furely no right to fet down any Di- 
menfions to this Part of his Plan, or to fhade it with his darker Tint. 

On the Weftern Wall or Front, Monf. Le Roy has placed five Gates or Entrances, and three Por- 
tals, altho' it is plain to every Obferver, that there has never been more than one Gate here, and 
one Portal only, in the Original. He has likewife adorned it with 46 Columns and 8 Antae, when 
it is apparent from the original Remains that there never has been more than 1 8 Columns and 4 Antae 
in this Situation; and he has extended this Weftern Wall in fuch a manner as to make it 417 Feet 
longer than it is in the Original. 

The defire of convincing his Reader that this Building is really the Temple of Jupiter Olym- 
pius, has manifeftly occafioned him to extend this Front fo prodigioufly beyond its due Limits, 
in direct Contradiction to that clear Evidence of its original Dimenfions which the Veftiges ftill 

(a) II [le Temple de Jupiter Olympien] etoit environne au rapport de Pan- diftinguee dans la Planche XXII, figure I. par un teinte un peu forte des au- 
fanias, d'une vafte enceinte, dont j'ai rcconnu une partic fur le lieu: je l'ai tres parties de cettc memc enceinte que j'ai rcftituees. Le Roy, part II. p. 20. 

remain- 



at Athens. 



47 



remain.ng afford us: and the neceffity he was under of decorating this great imaginary extent of Wall, 
has obliged him to place before it that extraordinary number of Portals, Gates and Columns, which 
we fee in his Plan. And becaufe the mofi unqueftionable Authorities an Architect can avail himfelf 
of, when he undertakes to reftore an ancient Building, are the Veftiges of it which he finds remaining 
Mont Le Roy, ,t feems, has invented exaftly fuch a number of thefe Authorities as are neceffary to 
juftify his Hypothefis, and inconteftibly afcertain the Truth of his Reftorations. 

The Portal in the middle of this Front will furnifh an Example, that fufficiently confirms what is 
here advanced. 

This Portal In the Original extends 37 Feet 9 i Inches. It is compofed of four Columns and 
two Pteromata, and is placed before one fingle Entrance or Gate-Way. But as a Portal of thefe Di- 
menfions would by no means be thought a fufficient Ornament for the Approach to a Temple like 
that of Jupiter Olympius, which was confeffedly one of the moft Sumptuous and Magnificent in the 
World, Monf. Le Roy has made it extend 120 Parifian Feet, or about 127 Feet, 10 Inches Englifh 
Meafure, he has adorned it with 10 Columns and 4 Pteromata, and has placed it before three Gate- 
ways. 

To give a Colour to this pretended Reftoration, he has fhaded one of his imaginary Pteromata, and 
one jamb of an imaginary Gateway with his darker Tint, as if he had really fcen them; and he has fet 
down the Meafure of the Diameter to an imaginary Column, the fifth in order from the Northern 
Angle of the Portal, as if part of that alfo which might be meafured, was ftill remaining: altho' no 
Veftiges of fuch Column, fuch Pteroma, or fuch Gateway do now, nor indeed ever did exift. They are 
Authorities merely of his own invention, as moft clearly and obvioufly appears from what ftill remains 
of this Building. 

Thefe are not however, all the fictitious Authorities that he has produced; he has invented others to 
eftablifh in his Readers opinion, the truth of thofe extravagant Dimenfions which he gives to the 
general extent of this Front. Thefe Authorities he has obtained folely by the mifapplication of his 
darker Tint; as will appear by the following Remarks. 

We have already obferved that the whole extent of this Front, from its northern to its fouthem 
Extremity, is limited by two Pteromata. This Extent therefore is accurately determined by them as 
they are ftill entire, and remain in their original Situations. 

Monf. Le Roy has neverthelefs lengthened out the Front Wall at each of its Extremities about 
150 Parifian Feet beyond thefe Pteromata. The addition he has thus made on the Northern Extre- 
mity is the place, in which he has chofen to difplay his fictitious Authorities for this imaginary Extent. 
Here by means of the darker Tint with which he has /haded one end of his additional Wall, he would 
perfuade us, that he has feen a Fragment of it contiguous to the Northern Pteroma; and by means 
of fuch a Shadow on the other end, that he has feen another Fragment of it, terminating the Front 
and forming an Angle with that Northern Wall already defcribed, in which the Remains of three 
Exhedrae are vifible. Now as the Angle which this Northern Wall actually makes with the extremity 
of the Front, and the junction alfo of that Wall with the Northern Pteroma do both remain entire 
(See Plate II. and Plate VI, of this Chapter.) it is evident that his whole additional Wall is merely 
imginary ; and therefore thefe Fragments of it, which he falfely pretends to have feen, are merely Non- 
exiftences. 

He cannot even plead in excufe for this Error, that he was mifled by the Remains of fome other 
Building which he faw in this Place; for there is really no Part of any ruined Building remaining on 
the Spot where he has marked thefe Fragments. 

A a Thefe 



48 



Of a Stoa or Portico, 



Thefe two imaginary Fragments which he thus impofes on us, are however of great confequence to 
Monf. Le Roy; fince if we admit them to be genuine, they will furnifh exactly all the Authorities 
neceflary to verify the extraordinary Dimensions which he afligns to this Front: for they would prove 
ihe Exiftence of the Northern additional Wall of which he would have us fuppofe them to be the 
Remains; and, as we muft allow this Building to be erected on a regular Plan, they would alfo prove 
a fimilar Addition on the Southern Extremity of this Front. 

And fince the fuppofition of two fuch additional Walls, how falfe foever in itfelf, does at the fame 
time imply that a fuitable Decoration was beftowed on them; thefe fictitious Fragments muft in fome 
fort be confidered as Authorities likewife for the imaginary Portal of two Columns, and the imaginary 
Kange of nine Columns which he has placed againft each of thefe additional Walls. 

Having thus by means of various Mifreprefentations, obtained fuch Dimenfions and Decorations for 
the Wa'ls of this Enclofure, as might confirm his Reader in the falfe Opinion that the Temple of Ju- 
piter Glvmpius flood in this place; he then proceeds to reftore the Temple itfelf; which he fays pre- 
lents us with the moft ftately and moft beautiful Difpofition for a Temple, that the Greeks ever con- 
trived^). Put as he tells us, that no Veftiges of it are to be found, it is plain by his own account, 
that it can prefent us with no fuch thing; nor indeed does he pretend that the Plan he has 
given of it, is taken from any Remains of the Original Building. He has compofed it, he in- 
forms us, from the Defcription of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, which Vitruvius has left us; 
and he has regulated the fpace it occupies in the Fnclofure, on the Authority (b) of a Ruin in 
Falmyra. Monf. Le Roy has certainly been at confiderable Pains to reftore this Temple; but he has 
taken no Notice of the Ruins which ftill remain here, in the Church of the Megdle Panagia. Thefe 
Ruins we muft obferve are inconteftible Authorities, and they do moft clearly prove that no fuch 
Temple as Monf. Le Roy has planned here, can ever poflibly have flood within the Enclofure of 
thefe Vv alls. 

The Remarks which we have already made on Monf. Le Roy's Plan, will, it is prefumed, fuffi- 
ciently fhew what credit may be given either to his Reftorations, or to the Authorities he has produced 
for them: and the Inftances which we find of his Agreement with Wheler and Spon, in fo many 
of their moft capital Errors, will perhaps fufficiently juftify our Opinion, that his Plan is formed rather 
fiom the inaccurate Accounts which thofe Travellers have given us, than from any actual Obfervations 
which he has, himfelf, made on the Spot. 

That the Reader may determine how far this Cenfure on Monf Le Roy deferves Credit, we fhall, 
in as concife a Manner as we are able, collect together all the principal Errors in which his Plan agrees 
with their Accounts; and we fhall here exhibit them all in one View, as well thofe we have already 
obferved, as thofe which have not hitherto been mentioned by us. 

Monf. Le Roy calls this Building, the Temple of Jupiter Olympius, and he fuppofes that famous 
Temple to have been Erected on the North Side of the Acropolis near the Prytaneum: but in each of 
thefe Particulars, we have already feen that he is miftaken. Wheler and Spon have made the fame 
Miftakes before him; and in fupport of thefe Miftakes, they have produced fome very inconclufive Ar- 
guments, which Monf. Le Roy has likewife to the fame purpofe repeated after them. 

Monf. Le Roy has reprefented the Plan of this Building a Square; and he tells us that it is four Sta- 
dia in Circumference. Jn thefe Miftakes we have already (hewn that he perfectly agrees with Wheler. 



(a) En effet, le Temple de Jupiter Olympien qui etoit de cet Ordre, 
(Corinthien,) nous offre auffi la plus granda & la plus belle Difpofition du 
Temple que les Grccs ayent imagine. II etoit environne au rapport de Pau- 
fanias d'une vafte enceinte, dont j'ai reconnu une partie fur le lieu: je l'ai 
dift'mguee dans la Planche XXII, figure I, par une teinte un peu forte 
des autres Parties de cette enceinte que j'ai reftitu6cs; mais je riai pu trou- 
ver aucuns Vejliges du corps du Temple mtme y dont Vitruve parle, je l'ai 
compofe d'apr^s ce que cet Auteur nous ert apprend dans le paflage qui 
fuit. 



* L'Hypaetre eft Decaftyle devant & derriere, &c. nous n'avons point 

* d'exemple de cette maniere a Rome, mais il y en a un a Athenes, au 

* Temple de Jupiter Olympien, qui n'eft qu'Odtaflyle. 

(b) Je n'ai donne a ce Temple que huit Colonnes de Face, en fuivant 
le Texte de Vitruve j &c. Je me fuis regie pour l'efpace qu'il occupoit 
dans fon enceinte, fur celui qu'occupoit dans une femblable enceinte, le 
magnifique Temple du Soleil a Palmyre, &c. Le Roy, Partie II, Page ao. 

He 



at Athens. 



49 



He has reprefented the Eaftern Wall as utterly demoliflied ; he has (haded the Northern Wall as 
if it were unbroken from one end to die other ; and omitting the Exhedrae on it, he has expref- 
fed its Plan by two parallel uninterrupted right Lines. But in every one of thefe Inftances he is 
miftaken ; and all thefe Miftakes are, exactly in the manner Monf. Le Roy has made them, to 
be found in the erroneous inartificial Print of this Building which Wheler has given us. 

In his Reprefentation of the Front Wall, he has placed no Pteroma on its Extremities, tho* 
they ftill exift in the Original. Between each Extremity of this Wall and the Portal in the middle of 
it, he has placed eighteen Columns, inftead of feven only, which are in the Original. In thefe Mif- 
takes likewife, he is authorifed by the abovementioned erroneous Print given us by Wheler. 

He has omitted the Ruins in the Church of the Megdle Panagia ; neither Wheler nor Spon take 
any notice of this Church, or of the Ruins which are to be feen there. 

For the three Portals and the five Gates or Entrances which Monf. Le Roy has placed on this Front, 
no Authority can be found either in Wheler's Plan or his Defcription. Spon indeed cenfuring Monf. 
Guilletiere, fays (a) as follows, " In the Plan of Athens which the fame Author (Guilletiere) has given 
C{ us, he places thefe three Portals and this Wall quite out of the City, towards the North; inftead 
cc of which we obferve that they are almoft in the middle of Athens, and that there is not, pro- 
" perly fpeaking, more than one Portal, and fomewhat of a Poftern-Gate.' 

It is this Paffage of Spon, which feems to have furnifhed Monf. Le Roy with a hint for his 
Gates and Portals. It muft indeed be confeffed, that the manner in which Spon exprefles himfelf here, 
is fuch, as will bear a conftru&ion not unfavorable to this part of Monf. Le Roy's Reftorations, we 
think it therefore neceffary to explain this PalTage of Spon, and fhew what he muft have meant by 
thefe three Portals. 

To this end, we muft acquaint the Reader, that the Refidence of the Vaiwode or Turkifh Gover- 
nor, and of all his Attendants, has been for many years, if not always, within the Enclofure of 
thefe ancient Walls, which has doubtlefs been confidered as a place of fecurity, fo long as the Walls 
remained entire : for they were then of fufficient Height and Solidity to refill: any fudden Aflault. 
To render this Place more defenfible, and fitter to protect the Perfon of the chief Magiftrate, the 
ancient Entrance to this Enclofure was ftrengthened by the addition of two other Gates, built juft with- 
in it, as at the Entrance (b\ of a Citadel; fo that whoever would enter here, was obliged to 
pafs three Gates, one after the other. Thefe three Gates therefore were not three Apertures in 
the Front- Wall, as Monf. Le Roy has reprefented them: and the two inner Gates were no part 
of the ancient Building, but the latter Additions of a barbarous Age. They were doubtlefs (landing in 
the time of Wheler and Spon, for the prefent Inhabitants fay, that they were demoliflied about five and 
twenty years ago, together with part of the ancient Wall, to the Southward of the Portal, by a 
Vaiwode who imagined that he fhould by this means, extend the Profpect from his Houfe to- 
wards the Piraeus and the Sea-Shore. He did confiderable Mifchief to this Antiquity, and his Prof- 
pc£ was very little improved by it. 

From this Account it is evident that the three Portals mentioned by Spon, in the PalTage we 
have juft now cited, do by no means, when their Situation is rightly underftood, favour the Sy- 



la) Dans le Plan que lc meme Autcur (Monf. Guilletiere) noua donne 
d'Athenes, il place ces trois Portails & cette Muraille tout- a- fait hors de 
la Ville, vers le Nord, au lieu qu'ils font prefque au milieu d'Athenes, 
& qu'il n'y a proprement qu'un Portail & quclque faufle Porte. 

Voyage de Spon, Tome II, Page 187. 

(b) Pere Babin in his Letter to the Abbe Pecoil, which was publifhed 
by Spon about two Years before he vifited Athens, has mentioned this 
Antiquity, which hemiftook at firft for one of the ancient Gate* of the 



City. e < C'eft une des plus magnifiques Portei, (fays he) qne j'aye vues : 
" il y en a trois Tune apres Tautre, comme Ton voit a l* entree des Ci- 
" tadelles.' It is one of the moji magnificent Gates (fays he,) that I ever 
faWy there are three of them one after the ether, in the manner »ne fees 
them, at the entrance of Citadels, 



B b 



Relation de l'Etat prefent d'Athenes, &c. impri- 
mcc a Lyons, chez, Louis Pafcal, 1674. 

ftern 



So 



Of a Stoa, or Portico, 



ftem of Monf. Le Roy. It is likewife evident, from the Remarks we have made on his Plan, 
that inftead of deteding the Errors of Wheler and Spon, he has generally copied them; and that 
by the unwarrantable Ufe of his darker Tint, he has produced fiditious Authorities to confirm 
and eftablifli thefe Errors, and the others alfo, equally extravagant, which he himfelf has added, to 
them. 

The other Defigns that Monf. Le Roy has given us of this Building, are the General Elevation of 
that part of the Front which remains moft entire j and the particular Mouldings of the Entablature. It 
may feem needlefs to make any Remarks on thefe Defigns, after having deteded fo many Errors in 
his Plan. There are however fuch flrong marks of Negligence in his General Elevation, that we think 
ourfelves obliged to point out fome of them to the Reader. 

In this General Elevation he has omitted, firft, all the Pedeftals, Secondly, the fix Steps by which 
you afcended to the Portal. Thirdly, the Remains of the Door-Cafe ; and fourthly, the Tympanum of 
the Pediment, altho', the Proportion of it deferves particular Notice, and the Form of it, were there 
no other Proof, afcertains the extent of the Portal. And fifthly, he omits all that Part of the Front 
which is to the Southward of the Portal. 

The Mafonry of the Wall before which the Columns are placed, is mifreprefented in Monf. Le Roy's 
Print; for between the Pavement and the Architrave of the Entablature, there are 15 Courfes of Stone 
in the Original : but as he has omitted the Pedeftals, he has of confequence omitted likewife the lower- 
moft Courfe, for it does not rife fo high as the top of the Pedeftals. Since however he expreffes all 
that part of the Wall which is between the top of the Pedeftals and the Architrave, this at leaft we 
might exped he would reprefent exadly ; here fourteen Courfes of Stone are vifible in the Original and 
ten of them are rufticated. Monf. Le Roy has made only twelve Courfes in that Space, and he has 
rufticated eleven of them. 

Thefe Courfes it (hould be obferved extend from the Portico in the middle of the Front, to the 
Pteroma which limits its Northern Extremity, and the Divifions of the Ruflic are difpofed on every other 
Courfe alternately, in fuch manner, that there are twenty- four Stones of equal length, in one 
Courfe, and twenty-three Stones of the fame length, with two of half that length, in the Courfe next 
above it, and in that next below it. Inftead of which Monf. Le Roy has made only fixteen Stones, 
of the greateft length in one Courfe, and fiveteen of that length with two of half that length in the 
Courfes next above it and below it. 

^ It now remains to fay fomething concerning the liberties which have been taken, in the remarks on 
Sir George Wheler and Dr. Spon; to whofe writings we had fuch frequent Obligations ; and indeed 
every Traveller who vifits the Countries they have vifited, may be greatly advantaged by the information 
they will afford him. The manners of the Inhabitants, the Situation of the ancient Monuments, and 
the condition in which they found them, are defcribed by thefe Gentlemen with great "exadnefs. They 
have diligently preferved many ancient Infcriptions, and faithfully noted the diftances of the Places thro* 
which they palled ; they have alfo attended very carefully to the relation between the ancient and modern 
Geography. Our Countryman Sir George Wheler, has indeed particularly diftinguifhed himfelf on the 
fubjed of Geography, and has befides obferved many of the vegetable produdions of thefe Countries. 

But the Prints with which they illuftrate their Defcriptions, ftiew them to have had very little pradife 
in the Arts of Defign ; they are indeed as inartificial and unfatisfadory as ever appeared in any Book of 
Travels. However, if they have not been fo accurate and fo happy as we could wifli, either in their 
delineation and defcription of the Buildings, or in their conjedures concerning them; the want of an able 
Defigner, and the very Ihort time alfo, which they flayed in each place, will eafily account and apolo- 
gize for thefe defeds. 

Thefe 



at Athens. 



51 



left it. In this fpace of Time, it fliould be obferved, they made feveral Exciirfions from that City, they 
went twice to mount Hymettus, once to the Ports of Piraeus, Phalerus and Munychia, their voyage to 
Salamis probably took up two days, and they employed nine in a Tour to Corinth and Sycion; fo that 
the time thefe Gentlemen fpent in each others company at Athens, could not exceed 17 or 18 Days. 
Sir George Wheler, it is true, returned there after Dr. Spon had quitted him, and feems to have 
flayed about a fortnight longer; his Geographical and Botanical Obfervations were doubtlefs improved 
by his Return, but thefe, or other Studies in which he was engaged, probably did not fuffer him to 
reconfider the ancient Buildings, or revife what he had faid concerning therh. 

Now if we reflecT: on the fnortnefs of the Days in February, and how unfavorable that Seafon of 
the Year muft have proved to their refearches; that much of their time was employed in other places, 
and that neither of them appear to have made much proficiency in the Arts of Defign, we fhall readily 
ffxcufe any miflakes they have made concerning the Sculpture and Architecture of Athens. Indeed 
whoever confiders all the circumftances attending their Voyage, will find himfelf obliged to admire their 
diligence, their fagacity, and the genuine truth of their relations: and will rather praife them greatly 
for what they have performed, than cenfure them for what they have left to the future diligence of 
thofe, who informed and excited by their valuable writings, might undertake this journey after them. 

But altho' we find thai thefe Gentlemen deferve our Applaufe, and arc perfectly excufable for the 
Miflakes they have made, no one furely will venture to fay that their Miflakes have a right to remain 
unnoticed; efpecially when they have obtained fuch Credit, that Travellers vifiting the fame Places 
and viewing the fame Objects have been mifled by them. Cornelius MagnU a Parmefan Gentleman (a) 
who in company with the Marquis du Nointel, was at Athens in the Year 1672, but publifhed his Ac- 
count of it in the Year 1688; and Fanelli, a Venetian Advocate, whofe Book entitled Jtene Attica, 
was publifhed in the Year 1708, tho' they have both of them profefledly defcribed the Antiquities of 
Athens, have done little more than repeat what Wheler and Spon had already faid on the fame fubjeel: 
before them. 

Indeed fo great is the Reputation of thefe Gentlemen's Writings, that we fee Monf. Le Roy himfelf, 
an Architect by Profeffion, continually impofed on by their Authority, even in fubjects relating to his 
Art: tho' he afiures us(t) that nothing but an eagernefs of acquiring new lights for himfelf in the ftudr 
of that Art, a defire of afferting the reputation of his Country, the great Encomiums which the An- 
cients have beftowed on the Edifices of the Grecians, and the imperfect Accounts of them which Mo- 
dern Travellers have given us, were the Motives which determined him to vifit Greece. What might we 
not expect from a Man animated by thefe Motives, efpecially when the advantages and opportunities (c) 

C c which, 



(a) Relazione della Citta <T Athene, colle Provincie dell* Attica, Facia, Bco- 
zia, &c. net Tempi che furono pajjeggiate da Cornelio Magni, Parmegiano, 
I* anno 1674, e dallo JleJJb publicata Vanno 1 688. It is in the form of a Letter 
to a Friend, fuppofed to be written at Athens. This Gentleman accompanied 
the Marquis de Nointel, who was Ambaffador from Lewis XIV. to the Ot- 
toman Porte, through various peregrinations in the Eaft ; and has left us a 
curious Account of the manner in which his friend the Marquis employed 
himfelf in the places he vifited. From this Relation of Magni' s, we likewife 
learn that the Marquis employed a young Flemifli Painter, for about a Month 
(part of November and December) in making Defigns from the Antiquities 
of Athens. 

Magni prefixes an Advertifement to the firft Edition of this Letter, which 
(hews how much he was obliged to Spon, It finishes with thefe expreffions. 
Per caminar mi fur at non ben quieto in me ftejjo, ho, trl anni fono fatto un Viaggio 
in Francia ad abboccarmi in Lione coW Eruditijfimo Giactb Spon, chi ha si dot- 
tamente fcritto di tutta la Grecia, con cui mi/on benijpmo accordato, rejlando piena- 
mente pago, coincidendo in molte cofe con lui, & in molte altre correttomi. « To 



c proceed with caution,' fays Magni, * not being quite fati.-ficd with myfelf, 
' I made a Journey into France three years ago, to difcourfe with the learned 
1 Jacob Spon, in Lyons, who has with fo much Erudition defcribed all 
' Greece, with whom I agreed exceeding well, remaining fully fatisfied, 
• coinciding with him in many things, and correcting myfelf in many 
' others.' 

(b) L'envie fcule d'acquerir de nouvelles connoiffances dans 1' Architecture, 
le defir d'executer une petite partie du magnifique projet forme dans le fiecle 
pafle par notre Nation, les grandes eloges que les Auteurs anciens nous ont faits 
des Edifices des Grecs, & le peu de connoiffance que nous en ont donne les 
Voyageurs modernes, furent des Raifons fuffifantcs pour m'y determiner. 
See Le Roy's Preface, Page vi. 

(r) De fi puiffantes recommendations me procurerent l'avantage d'aller 
d'une maniere tres agreable, de Venife a Conftantinople, 1'honneur que 
M. des Alleurs me fit dans cette derniere Ville, de me recevoir au Palais dc 
France, le Firman ou Paffcport qu'il m'obtint du Grand Seigneur, la fa- 

cilite 



5* 



Of a Stoa, or Portico, 



which, he informs us, favoured his examination of thefe ancient Buildings, were fuch as every one mult 
be convinced, would fufficiently enable him to give an exact account of them. 

But the more we are perfuaded of the advantages he was permitted to enjoy, of fecurely viewing 
and meafuring the Original Buildings, the more he muft be expofed to cenfure, for having copied Wheler 
and Spon in fo many lnftances; and by that means, inftead of detecting their Errors, when it certainly 
was in his power, chufing rather to confirm them as he has done, in the ftrongeft manner he was able. 

If it appears of any Importance to the ftudy of Architecture, and to the Reputation of Ancient 
Greece, that thefe Errors be detected, and that the falfe Opinions concerning thefe Athenian Antiquities, 
after having fubfifted fo long, be at length confuted, it muft appear ftill of greater confequence, that 
the negligences of Monf. Le Roy (hould not efcape our notice; the ftudy of Architecture which he 
profefles, the critical knowledge which he affects to difplay in that Art, the Appearance of precifion in 
his Meafures, and the pompous circumftances of his Publication, give an air of Authenticity to his 
Errors, which fcems perfectly calculated to impofe them on us for fo many accurate Truths. 

The Strictures therefore which in the courfe of our Work have been fo freely bellowed on his per- 
formance, will not, we imagine, furprife any of our Readers. If however an example were neceflary to 
juftify this Proceeding, the excellent Defgodetz will furnifh one of fufficient Authority; for in his Book 
on the ancient Edifices of Rome, he feems to omit no opportunity of detecting and expofing the Errors 
of the moft approved Authors, who had treated of thofe Antiquities before him; Palladio, Labacco, 
Serlio, and Monf. de Chambray, all of them celebrated Architects, and refpectable for the excellent 
Trcatifes they have publifhed concerning their Art, are the Perfons on whom his feverity is exercifed. 
Far the greater number of his Chapters are employed, more or lefs, in the performance of this Tafk, 
which is perhaps as advantageous to the Art, and as inftructive to the Reader, as it muft, certainly, be 
tedious and difagreeable to the Writer. 

cilite que j'eus par ce moyen dc voyager furement dans la Grece, d'y defigner jufqu'a leur faite, & d'y mefurer avec l'equerre & le pied, les plus petites de 
les Monumens dans les afpe&s les plus flateurs, de monter avec des 6chelles leur parties, &c. Le Roy's Preface, Page vi. 







Chap:V.W:l, 




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ERRATA. 

PAGE ii, note [a] line 13, for reconvert read recouvertes. 
P. ix, note [a] line 2, for m, read «W. And 1. 5, for Chap. xvi. 

read Chap, xxxvi. 
P. x, 1. 4, for APIANA, read AOIANA. 
P. 2, line ai> for 0/, read /o, and note [a] line 28, dele neverthe- 

lefs. Alfo in note [b] for EAAUiN, read EAAION. 
P. 5, note [a] 1. 5, ioxfoutient, read f out ientient. 
P. 6, 1. 4, for Cymbia, read Apophyge, Cimbia. Ibid. 1. 21, for Ftffo 

i5frf, read F/7/<?/, £« 

P. 7, note [c] 1. 13, for Eu/iachius, read Eujiathius. 

P. 8, note [</] 1. 13, for xaXvpivu, read xxXvpivuv without the comma 

after it. Ibid. 1. 14, for xuraa-xtva^ read xocrttrxwa^o. 
P. 10, note [a] 1. 9, for en grand. £/, read «* £ra»</, et. 
P. 16, note [c] 1. 1, for ns, read us. 

P. 37, at the end of note [b~\ add, Demojlh. contra Leptinem. 
Ibid, note [c] 1. £, dele the comma after Tiu<n^otro\j. 
P. 28, note [a] 1. 12, for cirovo*nv pev, read movlw xa). 
Ibid. 1. 13, for to/ aunjv, read roiauTijv. 
P. 30, note [*] 1. 2, for a^ia, read agiot. 
P. 44, note [a] 1. 16, for &«/ were, read &«/ xt>£<?r*. 
Ibid. 1. 19, for quelques portall, read que Jque port ail. 
P. 51, 1. 29, for averting, read advancing. 



Fig. 5. Plate VII. Chap. II. the general height of this Volute is by 
miftake marked -I. "9. 066, or 1 Foot, 9 Inches, 
of *i. *o, 966. or 1 Foot o Inches, -A 



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Concerning the Meafures marked on the Architectural Plates, it is neceffary to obferve, 
that after the particulars of a fet of Mouldings had been meafured, the general height of 
the Stone on which they were cut was likewife taken, and is marked on the Plates ; for 
which reafon the reader will frequently find fome fmall difference between the general 
height, and the fum of the particular heights of a fet of Mouldings. 

Note alfo, that the Lift of Subfcribers names is piobably incomplete; becaufe many 
Receipts, which our Friends had taken to difpofe of, are not yet returned to us. Thefe 
will now be accounted for, and a correa lift will be printed and delivered to the purchafers 
of this Volume. 



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